Course 123 Introduction to Job Hazard Analysis

Safety guides and audits to make your job as a safety professional easier

Preventive Measures - Safe Job Procedure

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Hey, even dogs need PPE :-).

After reviewing your list of hazards with the employee, next consider using hazard control methods that will eliminate or reduce them.

There are two primary strategies to permanently or temporarily reduce the risk of injury.

  1. Eliminate or mitigate the hazard.
  2. Eliminate or mitigate exposure to the hazard.

Each of these strategies employs a number of prioritized methods within what's called the "Hierarchy of Controls". The rest of this module will discuss the various hazard control methods within the hierarchy.

Hazard Control Strategies

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The Hierarchy of Controls
Click to enlarge.

Information obtained from a job hazard analysis is most useful when hazard control measures are developed and incorporated into the job.

A basic hazard control principle is that we must either (1) eliminate the hazard or (2) control exposure to the hazard. The second principle is that it's more effective to eliminate the hazard than to control exposure to the hazard. These two important principles guide safety and health professionals in constructing a "hierarchy" of hazard control strategies.

Traditionally, the following Hierarchy of Hazard and Exposure Controls has been used as a means of determining how to implement feasible and effective controls:

  1. Eliminate the hazard if you can. If you can do that, you eliminate exposure at the same time, and risk of an accident.
  2. Substitution: If you can replace a greater hazard with a lesser hazard, you mitigate the risk.
  3. Engineering controls: Design and redesign of equipment and machinery reduces exposure primarily through enclosure, isolation, barriers, and ventilation.
  4. Administrative controls: Reduce exposure to the hazard through training, policies, procedures, practice, etc.
  5. Personal protective equipment: If we use it, reduces exposure to hazards.

The idea behind this hierarchy is that the control methods at the top of the list are potentially more effective and protective than those at the bottom. Following the hierarchy normally leads to the implementation of inherently safer systems, ones where the risk of illness or injury has been substantially reduced.

1. What is the primary strategy to reduce the risk of injury?

a. Train and educate employees
b. Eliminate/reduce hazards and exposure to hazards
c. Reduce the type of exposure to hazards
d. Engineer exposure to reduce hazards
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What can eliminate the need for the ladder?

Elimination and Substitution

Elimination and substitution, while most effective at reducing hazards, also tend to be the most difficult to implement in an existing process. These strategies are considered first because they have the potential of completely eliminating the hazard, thus greatly reducing the probability of an accident. Redesigning or replacing equipment or machinery may be expensive, but remember the average direct and indirect cost of a lost-work injury can be more than $50,000 and easily more than $1 million to close a fatality claim.

Engineering Controls

Engineering controls are built into the design of a facility, equipment or process to minimize the hazard. Engineering controls are a very reliable way to control worker exposures as long as the controls are properly designed, used and maintained.

If, during the JHA, you discover a hazard that can be engineered out, be sure to do it. One of the important goals of a JHA is to turn the dangerous step into a safe step that doesn't require safety precautions. Engineering controls may include:

  • Enclosing the hazard using enclosed cabs, enclosures for noisy equipment, or other means;
  • Isolating the hazard with interlocks, machine guards, blast shields, welding curtains, or other means; and
  • Removing or redirecting the hazard such as with local exhaust ventilation.

Read more about engineering controls.

2. Each of the following is a possible engineering control, EXCEPT _____.

a. Enclosing a hazard
b. Isolating a hazard
c. Removing a hazard
d. Identifying a hazard

Administrative Controls

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Administrative controls work as long as employees behave.

This is the "next best" strategy, if elimination, substitution, and engineering control methods are insufficient. Since we can't get rid of the hazard in a JHA step, we'll need to manage exposure to it with safety precautions. Methods to eliminate or reduce employee exposure to hazards include:

  • developing new policies, procedures, and practices to reduce frequency/duration of exposure
  • revising work schedules to reduce the frequency/duration of exposure
  • training

Personal Protective Equipment

Many procedures developed with a JHA will include the need to use PPE. Examples of PPE include respirators, hearing protection, protective clothing, safety glasses, and hardhats. PPE is acceptable as a control method in the following circumstances:

  • when engineering controls are not feasible or do not totally eliminate the hazard
  • while engineering controls are being developed
  • when safe work practices do not provide sufficient additional protection
  • during emergencies when engineering controls may not be feasible

Now let's take a look at what our sample JHA looks like now that we've identified some hazards and their related preventive measures in each step.

JOB: LOADING PRODUCTS INTO TRAILER

BASIC JOB STEP HAZARDS - POSSIBLE INJURIES PREVENTIVE MEASURES
1. Spotter: Spot position of trailer as it nears loading dock. Spotter could be caught between trailer and dock. Stay clear of the rear of the trailer as it is being backed into position.
Keep others away from the area.
2. When trailer is in position, turn engine off, set parking brake, and notify forklift operator. Driver could be injured if he/she jumps off the truck. Never jump off the cab or back of the trailer.
3. Set chocks. Driver could strike head on trailer.
Driver could trip, slip, fall while in the dock well.
Avoid striking the trailer when setting the wheel chocks.
Use handrails and use care when walking on slippery surfaces.
SAFE JOB PROCEDURE




3. What is the next best control strategy to consider in a JHA if elimination, substitution, or engineering controls are not suitable?

a. Personal protective equipment
b. Interim measures
c. Warning signs
d. Administrative controls

Write the Safe Job Procedure (SJP)

The safe job procedure is the final result or product of the JHA process. The safe job procedure is an excellent document to use as a training lesson plan. In fact, you might include the safe job procedures you've developed as part of the safety training plan.

If the safe job procedure is poorly written and hard to understand by those unfamiliar with the job, the JHA may not be effective as an on-the-job training tool. It's important to write a clear, concise, and concrete safe job procedure. So, let's take a look at some of the best strategies in writing safe job procedures.

Points to Remember

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A good SJP paints a word picture.

Write in a step-by-step format. Usually, this means writing a number of paragraphs. Each paragraph should attempt to :

  1. Describe the step. Remember each step is describing one action. For example, you might say, "Grasp the breaker switch and move it from the on to the off position (down)."
  2. Point out the hazard. If a step includes exposure to a hazard, there are four parts to the step:
    1. describe the action
    2. identify the hazard
    3. describe the possible injury the hazard could cause
    4. identify the safety precaution to prevent the injury

For instance, you would continue the warning by saying, "Grasp the breaker switch and move it from the on to the off position (down). To prevent a possible serious burn injury if an arc flash occurs, be sure you turn your head and look away as you flip the breaker switch."

4. What is an important benefit if your safe job procedure is well-written?

a. The procedures will be performed faster
b. You don't have to rely on common sense
c. The JHA will be great for training
d. It doesn't have to pass the "dummy test"

More Points to Remember

Shipboard JHA.
  • Paint a word picture - concrete vs. abstract. The idea is to write the procedure in such a way that someone who is not familiar with the job can actually "see" each step occur. When writing safe job procedures, we tend to write in a technical style because it seems to be more "efficient." However, if you are going to use the safe job procedure as a lesson plan for conducting safety training, it's probably a good idea to write in a more interesting conversational style.
  • Write in the second person. For example, say "Be sure you...". Try to avoid writing in the third person such as, "Be sure the worker...". In most steps you won't have to worry about this because the person you are writing to is implied.
  • Write in the present tense. Say "take" rather than "should be taken." This helps to create the word picture and streamline the safe job procedure.
  • Write as clearly as possible. Say "use" rather than "utilize." Replacing more complex words with simple words helps to make sure your employees comprehend the material.
  • If you use acronyms or jargon, make sure the meaning of the acronym is spelled out when first used. Make sure jargon is explained on first use.

5. Which of the following is an example of best practice when writing a safe job procedure (SJP)?

a. Write "the worker should," rather than "you should"
b. Say "take," rather than "should be taken"
c. Write "SJP," rather than "Safe Job Procedure (SJP)"
d. Say "utilize," rather than "use"

Still More Points to Remember

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Include notes, cautions and warnings in the SJP.
  • Remind the worker why it is important to do the step safely. Unfortunately, OSHA rules do not emphasize this important part of the training. Nevertheless, you should always discuss the consequences of the employee's personal behavior.
  • Include notes, cautions, warnings. Tell the employee about the dangers and safety precautions to reduce the dangers in each step. Doing this also helps to emphasize the costs (injury, illness) and benefits (health) of using safety precautions.
  • Keep sentences short. Grammar checker software can help you do this. Usually, a sentence of 7-15 words is adequate.
  • Remind the worker why it is important to do the step safely. Remember, there is no successful safety management system without effective accountability.

Now let's take a look at what our sample JHA looks like now that we've identified some hazards and their related preventive measures in each step, and written the safe job procedure.

JOB: LOADING PRODUCTS INTO TRAILER

BASIC JOB STEP HAZARDS - POSSIBLE INJURIES PREVENTIVE MEASURES
1. Spotter: Spot position of trailer as it nears loading dock. Spotter could be caught between trailer and dock. Caution: Stay clear of the rear of the trailer as it is being backed into position.
Note: Keep others away from the area.
2. Driver: When trailer is in position, turn engine off, set parking brake, and notify forklift operator. Driver could be injured if he/she jumps off the truck. Warning: Never jump off the cab or back of the trailer.
3. Driver: Set chocks. Driver could strike head on trailer.
Driver could trip, slip, fall while in the dock well.
Warning: Avoid striking the trailer when setting the wheel chocks.
Caution: Use handrails and use care when walking on slippery surfaces.
SAFE JOB PROCEDURE

Step 1. Spotter: Position the vehicle. Spot the position of the trailer as it nears the loading dock. Make sure the trailer is correctly positioned in the dock well. Warning: It's important to follow these procedures so you don't get caught between the trailer and dock when the trailer is backing up to the dock. Note: Be sure to keep others away from the area. Remove the awareness chain or bar from the front of the dock door once the trailer is properly positioned.

Step 2. Driver: When the trailer is in position, verify the vehicle has been turned off, set the parking brake, and notify the forklift operator. Warning: When exiting the truck, never jump. Many drivers are injured jumping from the cab of the truck or back of the trailer.

Step 3. Driver: Set the chocks. After exiting the truck, chock the wheels. Warning: Be sure not to strike your head against the truck when setting the chocks. Caution: Be careful when walking on slippery surfaces and use handrails when using ramps or stairs.

Last words: Make sure that workers are observed actually performing the entire job to make sure the JHA you just developed has been developed effectively.

6. Which of the following should be part of the Safe Job Procedure (SJP) section of the JHA form?

a. A general summary with no step-by-step wording
b. A list of hazards and exposures
c. Notes, cautions, and warnings
d. References to manufacturer manuals

Improve the JHA Process

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Regularly analyze the JHA process.

Periodically reviewing your job hazard analysis ensures that it remains current and continues to help reduce workplace accidents and injuries. Even if the job has not changed, it is possible that during the review process you will identify hazards that were not identified in the initial analysis.

It is particularly important to review your job hazard analysis if an illness or injury occurs on a specific job. Based on the circumstances, you may determine that you need to change the job procedure to prevent similar incidents in the future. If an employee's failure to follow proper job procedures results in a "close call," discuss the situation with all employees who perform the job and remind them of proper procedures.

  • It may also be possible that the problem is with the procedure. Maybe it needs to be changed. Talk with employees about their reasons for the apparent unsafe behavior. You might be surprised to learn they have been "trapped" into doing the job that way.
  • On the other hand, discipline may be appropriate if the safety management system has not failed the employee (the employer is meeting all safety obligations).

Any time you revise a job hazard analysis, it is important to train all employees affected by the changes in the new job methods, procedures, or protective measures adopted.

7. Which of the following would most certainly trigger a review of a JHA?

a. The company is going to be inspected by OSHA
b. It's been a while since the last review
c. The safety inspector can't find the JHA form
d. A worker is almost hurt using the procedure

Tips to Improve the JHA

To improve the JHAs and its related SJP, think about the "ergonomics" of the job. Find ways to further reduce lifting, lowering, pushing, pulling, carrying, throwing, holding, twisting, or jobs using force. A SJP should remove any unnecessary actions and prevent the need to do things more than once if possible. There should be as little heavy carrying as possible and also include rest breaks if needed. If feasible, provide mechanical aids such as hoists, adjustable workbenches, and hooks. Make sure tools and equipment are positioned so that they are in easy reach.

A solid JHA improvement process will make good use of the experience and knowledge of:

  • workers who have been using the JHA procedures,
  • subject matter experts (SMEs) from various safety and health specialties, and
  • OSHA consultants (they're free and confidential!).

Workers provide valuable experience in the procedure. SMEs provide a level of involvement as experts in their field. They can effectively review the jobs and the hazards identified to determine the proper set of controls required. Workers and SMEs can also help improve the methods to communicate instructions or procedures.

Any time you revise a job hazard analysis, it is important to train all employees affected by the changes in the new job methods, procedures, or protective measures adopted.

8. Who can be the most help when reviewing a JHA for a particular procedure?

a. Workers who perform the procedures
b. Third-party subject matter experts
c. OSHA consultants
d. Safety staff members

Take a Team Approach

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To further improve the quality of your JHA program, you may want to establish a formal JHA Team.

The JHA Team should consist of a diverse membership including:

  • the first line supervisor, or designee, of the affected area as team leader
  • employees experienced in the job that the JHA will be conducted on - if this is a new type of job experienced employees will probably not be available
  • additional subject matter, expert resources as needed to evaluate the job, including, but not limited to the area safety engineer, industrial hygienist, safety manager, fire protection officer, emergency preparedness coordinator, or safety observer, etc.

9. The best JHA review process involves _____.

a. anyone who wants to volunteer
b. employees from different departments
c. teams with diverse members
d. safety staff

Next Section

Team Responsibilities

The JHA Team might be responsible for:

  • developing a JHA by defining the key steps of each job, identifying the potential hazards of each key step and recommending safe practices (e.g., engineering controls, administrative controls, etc.) to eliminate or reduce each hazard/exposure;
  • conducting the JHA to determine effectiveness of steps, identifying hazards, and recommending preventive measures for the selected procedure;
  • recommending any changes required to facilitate personnel safety; including, but not limited to, specific procedures, policies, equipment, training, etc., that may be involved; and
  • providing the appropriate manager with a completed copy of the JHA.

10. Each of the following is a key JHA team responsibility EXCEPT _____.

a. recommending changes in the JHA procedure
b. discipline for non-compliance with JHA procedures
c. developing new JHAs and providing them to users
d. conducting JHAs to analyze their effectiveness

Check your Work

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Video

Video

Nathan Crutchfield: JHA vs JSA

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