Course 513 Introduction to 29 CFR 1910.147

Image Lockout Tagout Station - Mil Photo
Example of a Lockout/Tagout Station with written procedures.

General Requirements

1910.147(c) General.

1910.147(c)(1) Energy control program.

The employer shall establish a program consisting of energy control procedures, employee training and periodic inspections to ensure that before any employee performs any servicing or maintenance on a machine or equipment where the unexpected energizing, startup or release of stored energy could occur and cause injury, the machine or equipment shall be isolated from the energy source and rendered inoperative.

1910.147(c)(2) Lockout/tagout.

  • 1910.147(c)(2)(i) If an energy isolating device is not capable of being locked out, the employer's energy control program under paragraph (c)(1) of this section shall utilize a tagout system.
  • 1910.147(c)(2)(ii) If an energy isolating device is capable of being locked out, the employer's energy control program under paragraph (c)(1) of this section shall utilize lockout, unless the employer can demonstrate that the utilization of a tagout system will provide full employee protection as set forth in paragraph (c)(3) of this section.
  • 1910.147(c)(2)(iii) After January 2, 1990, whenever replacement or major repair, renovation or modification of a machine or equipment is performed, and whenever new machines or equipment are installed, energy isolating devices for such machine or equipment shall be designed to accept a lockout device.

Quiz Instructions

Read the material in each section to find the correct answer to each quiz question. After answering all the questions, click on the “Check Quiz Answers” button to grade your quiz and see your score. You will receive a message if you forgot to answer one of the questions. After clicking the button, the questions you missed will be listed below. You can correct any missed questions and check your answers again.

1. What must an authorized employee do if the equipment he/she is working on is not capable of being locked out?

a. Place a warning sign by the equipment
b. Post a guard to monitor the status of the energy isolation device
c. Use a tagout system if possible
d. Tell the supervisor that maintenance cannot be conducted

1910.147(c)(3) Full employee protection.

Copyright: digitalreflections 123RF Stock Photo
Does this tagout provide full employee protection?
  • 1910.147(c)(3)(i) When a tagout device is used on an energy isolating device which is capable of being locked out, the tagout device shall be attached at the same location that the lockout device would have been attached, and the employer shall demonstrate that the tagout program will provide a level of safety equivalent to that obtained by using a lockout program.
  • 1910.147(c)(3)(ii) In demonstrating that a level of safety is achieved in the tagout program which is equivalent to the level of safety obtained by using a lockout program, the employer shall demonstrate full compliance with all tagout-related provisions of this standard together with such additional elements as are necessary to provide the equivalent safety available from the use of a lockout device. Additional means to be considered as part of the demonstration of full employee protection shall include the implementation of additional safety measures such as the removal of an isolating circuit element, blocking of a controlling switch, opening of an extra disconnecting device, or the removal of a valve handle to reduce the likelihood of inadvertent energization.

2. What must the employer do to prove a tagout system is acceptable means of protecting employees servicing or maintaining equipment?

a. Demonstrate it provide safety equivalent to lockout
b. Show that it is hard to defeat the tagout system
c. Express the opinion that lockout is not feasible
d. Obtain agreement by authorized that tagout will work

1910.147(c)(4) Energy control procedure.

Copyright: bialasiewicz 123RF Stock Photo
Written LOTO procedures are not required if all conditions are met.

1910.147(c)(4)(i) Procedures shall be developed, documented and utilized for the control of potentially hazardous energy when employees are engaged in the activities covered by this section.

Note: Exception: The employer need not document the required procedure for a particular machine or equipment, when all of the following elements exist:

  • (1) The machine or equipment has no potential for stored or residual energy or reaccumulation of stored energy after shut down which could endanger employees;
  • (2) the machine or equipment has a single energy source which can be readily identified and isolated;
  • (3) the isolation and locking out of that energy source will completely deenergize and deactivate the machine or equipment;
  • (4) the machine or equipment is isolated from that energy source and locked out during servicing or maintenance;
  • (5) a single lockout device will achieve a locked-out condition;
  • (6) the lockout device is under the exclusive control of the authorized employee performing the servicing or maintenance;
  • (7) the servicing or maintenance does not create hazards for other employees; and
  • (8) the employer, in utilizing this exception, has had no accidents involving the unexpected activation or reenergization of the machine or equipment during servicing or maintenance.

3. The employer need not document the required lockout/tagout procedure for a particular machine or equipment when it has only electrical and hydraulic energy sources.

a. True
b. False

1910.147(c)(4) Energy control procedure. (continued)

Image Worker with Lockout Tagout Procedrues - Mil Photo
Use written lockout/tagout procedures.

1910.147(c)(4)(ii) The procedures shall clearly and specifically outline the scope, purpose, authorization, rules, and techniques to be utilized for the control of hazardous energy, and the means to enforce compliance including, but not limited to, the following:

  • 1910.147(c)(4)(ii)(A) A specific statement of the intended use of the procedure;
  • 1910.147(c)(4)(ii)(B) Specific procedural steps for shutting down, isolating, blocking and securing machines or equipment to control hazardous energy;
  • 1910.147(c)(4)(ii)(C) Specific procedural steps for the placement, removal and transfer of lockout devices or tagout devices and the responsibility for them; and
  • 1910.147(c)(4)(ii)(D) Specific requirements for testing a machine or equipment to determine and verify the effectiveness of lockout devices, tagout devices, and other energy control measures.

4. Energy control procedures must include _____ procedural steps for shutting down, isolating, blocking and securing machines or equipment to control hazardous energy.

a. complex
b. simple
c. general
d. specific

1910.147(c)(5) Protective materials and hardware.

Image Lockout/Tagout hardware - Mil Photo
Lockout/Tagout hardware.

1910.147(c)(5)(i) Locks, tags, chains, wedges, key blocks, adapter pins, self-locking fasteners, or other hardware shall be provided by the employer for isolating, securing or blocking of machines or equipment from energy sources.

1910.147(c)(5)(ii) Lockout devices and tagout devices shall: 

  • be singularly identified;
  • be the only devices(s) used for controlling energy;
  • not be used for other purposes; and
  • meet the following requirements:

  • 1910.147(c)(5)(ii)(A) Durable.
    • 1910.147(c)(5)(ii)(A)(1) Lockout and tagout devices shall be capable of withstanding the environment to which they are exposed for the maximum period of time that exposure is expected.
    • 1910.147(c)(5)(ii)(A)(2) Tagout devices shall be constructed and printed so that exposure to weather conditions or wet and damp locations will not cause the tag to deteriorate or the message on the tag to become illegible.
    • 1910.147(c)(5)(ii)(A)(3) Tags shall not deteriorate when used in corrosive environments such as areas where acid and alkali chemicals are handled and stored.
  • 1910.147(c)(5)(ii)(B) Standardized. Lockout and tagout devices shall be standardized within the facility in at least one of the following criteria: Color; shape; or size; and additionally, in the case of tagout devices, print and format shall be standardized.

5. Lockout/Tagout devices must be standardized in terms of the following criteria, EXCEPT _____.

a. size
b. age
c. shape
d. color

1910.147(c)(5) Protective materials and hardware. (continued)

Image lockout devices
Examples of lockout devices.
  • 1910.147(c)(5)(ii)(C) Substantial.
    • 1910.147(c)(5)(ii)(C)(1) Lockout devices. Lockout devices shall be substantial enough to prevent removal without the use of excessive force or unusual techniques, such as with the use of bolt cutters or other metal cutting tools.
    • 1910.147(c)(5)(ii)(C)(2) Tagout devices. Tagout devices, including their means of attachment, shall be substantial enough to prevent inadvertent or accidental removal.
      Copyright:dcwcreations 123RF Stock Photo
      Tags are only warning devices.

      Tagout device attachment means shall be of a non-reusable type, attachable by hand, self-locking, and non-releasable with a minimum unlocking strength of no less than 50 pounds and having the general design and basic characteristics of being at least equivalent to a one-piece, all environment-tolerant nylon cable tie.

  • 1910.147(c)(5)(ii)(D) Identifiable. Lockout devices and tagout devices shall indicate the identity of the employee applying the device(s).

1910.147(c)(5)(iii) Tagout devices shall warn against hazardous conditions if the machine or equipment is energized and shall include a legend such as the following: Do Not Start. Do Not Open. Do Not Close. Do Not Energize. Do Not Operate.

6. What is the minimum unlocking strength requirement for tagout device attachments means (usually plastic ties.)?

a. At least 10 pounds
b. No less than 50 pounds
c. Between 40 and 50 pounds
d. At least 40 pounds

1910.147(c)(6) Periodic inspection.

Image man inspecting procedures mil photo
Inspecting LOTO procedures.

1910.147(c)(6)(i) The employer shall conduct a periodic inspection of the energy control procedure at least annually to ensure that the procedure and the requirements of this standard are being followed.

  • 1910.147(c)(6)(i)(A) The periodic inspection shall be performed by an authorized employee other than the ones(s) utilizing the energy control procedure being inspected.
  • 1910.147(c)(6)(i)(B) The periodic inspection shall be conducted to correct any deviations or inadequacies identified.
  • 1910.147(c)(6)(i)(C) Where lockout is used for energy control, the periodic inspection shall include a review, between the inspector and each authorized employee, of that employee's responsibilities under the energy control procedure being inspected.
  • 1910.147(c)(6)(i)(D) Where tagout is used for energy control, the periodic inspection shall include a review, between the inspector and each authorized and affected employee, of that employee's responsibilities under the energy control procedure being inspected, and the elements set forth in paragraph (c)(7)(ii) of this section.

1910.147(c)(6)(ii) The employer shall certify that the periodic inspections have been performed. The certification shall identify the machine or equipment on which the energy control procedure was being utilized, the date of the inspection, the employees included in the inspection, and the person performing the inspection.

7. Who must perform the periodic inspection of lockout/tagout procedures?

a. An authorized employee who does not use the procedure
b. An authorized employee who uses the procedure
c. The affected employee who does not use the equipment
d. Both the authorized and affected employees

1910.147(c)(7) Training and communication.

Lockout/Tagout Procedure by DuraLabel (2:07)

1910.147(c)(7)(i) The employer shall provide training to ensure that the purpose and function of the energy control program are understood by employees and that the knowledge and skills required for the safe application, usage, and removal of the energy controls are acquired by employees. The training shall include the following:

  • 1910.147(c)(7)(i)(A) Each authorized employee shall receive training in the recognition of applicable hazardous energy sources, the type and magnitude of the energy available in the workplace, and the methods and means necessary for energy isolation and control.
  • 1910.147(c)(7)(i)(B) Each affected employee shall be instructed in the purpose and use of the energy control procedure.
  • 1910.147(c)(7)(i)(C) All other employees whose work operations are or may be in an area where energy control procedures may be utilized, shall be instructed about the procedure, and about the prohibition relating to attempts to restart or reenergize machines or equipment which are locked out or tagged out.

8. Who must receive lockout/tagout training covering the types and magnitudes of the energy available in the workplace?

a. All employees in the workplace
b. Authorized, affected, and other employees
c. Authorized employees
d. Authorized and affected employees

1910.147(c)(7) Training and communication. (continued)

Great Message from Alchemy Creative (2:29)

1910.147(c)(7)(ii) When tagout systems are used, employees shall also be trained in the following limitations of tags:

  • 1910.147(c)(7)(ii)(A) Tags are essentially warning devices affixed to energy isolating devices, and do not provide the physical restraint on those devices that is provided by a lock.
  • 1910.147(c)(7)(ii)(B) When a tag is attached to an energy isolating means, it is not to be removed without authorization of the authorized person responsible for it, and it is never to be bypassed, ignored, or otherwise defeated.
  • 1910.147(c)(7)(ii)(C) Tags must be legible and understandable by all authorized employees, affected employees, and all other employees whose work operations are or may be in the area, in order to be effective.
  • 1910.147(c)(7)(ii)(D) Tags and their means of attachment must be made of materials which will withstand the environmental conditions encountered in the workplace.
  • 1910.147(c)(7)(ii)(E) Tags may evoke a false sense of security, and their meaning needs to be understood as part of the overall energy control program.
  • 1910.147(c)(7)(ii)(F) Tags must be securely attached to energy isolating devices so that they cannot be inadvertently or accidentally detached during use.

9. Which of the following is true about tags used in a lockout/tagout program?

a. They may evoke a false sense of security
b. They provide safety equivalent to lockout devices
c. They may be used whenever locks are not available
d. They provide the same physical restraint as locks

1910.147(c)(7) Training and communication. (continued)

  • 1910.147(c)(7)(iii) Employee retraining.
    • 1910.147(c)(7)(iii)(A) Retraining shall be provided for all authorized and affected employees whenever there is a change in their job assignments, a change in machines, equipment or processes that present a new hazard, or when there is a change in the energy control procedures.
    • 1910.147(c)(7)(iii)(B) Additional retraining shall also be conducted whenever a periodic inspection under paragraph (c)(6) of this section reveals, or whenever the employer has reason to believe that there are deviations from or inadequacies in the employee's knowledge or use of the energy control procedures.
    • Copyright:dcwcreations 123RF Stock Photo
      Authorized employee isolating equipment.
      Photo by ACWA / CC-BY 4.0 License.
    • 1910.147(c)(7)(iii)(C) The retraining shall reestablish employee proficiency and introduce new or revised control methods and procedures, as necessary.
  • 1910.147(c)(7)(iv) The employer shall certify that employee training has been accomplished and is being kept up to date. The certification shall contain each employee's name and dates of training.

1910.147(c)(8) Energy isolation.

Lockout or tagout shall be performed only by the authorized employees who are performing the servicing or maintenance.

1910.147(c)(9) Notification of employees.

Affected employees shall be notified by the employer or authorized employee of the application and removal of lockout devices or tagout devices. Notification shall be given before the controls are applied, and after they are removed from the machine or equipment.

10. Who must be notified when authorized employees will be performing servicing or maintenance on equipment?

a. The safety department
b. Affected employees
c. Other exposed employees
d. All employees

Check your Work

Read the material in each section to find the correct answer to each quiz question. After answering all the questions, click on the "Check Quiz Answers" button to grade your quiz and see your score. You will receive a message if you forgot to answer one of the questions. After clicking the button, the questions you missed will be listed below. You can correct any missed questions and check your answers again.

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