Interview to get the facts.
Conducting Effective Interviews
Digging Up the Facts
After you have initially documented the accident scene, the next step is to start digging for additional details by conducting
This activity is perhaps the most difficult part of an investigation. This module will help you understand how to set up an
interview and develop interview questions. The module will also discuss how to organize the interview and the participants to most
effectively get accurate information.
Seven "Rights" of the Interview Process
Successful interviews require leadership.
The purpose of the accident investigation interview is to obtain an accurate and comprehensive picture of what happened. To do
that, the interviewer must demonstrate personal leadership and skill in conducting the interview. Since leadership is all about
doing the right thing, I came up with seven "rights" to help us remember what we should do to make sure the interview process is
effective. So, here are those seven rights...
Be sure you ask the:
- Right people the
- Right questions at the
- Right time in the
- Right place in the
- Right way for the
- Right reason to uncover the
- Right facts
Cooperation increases trust.
Cooperation is the Key
Cooperation not intimidation is the key to a successful accident investigation interview.
It's very counterproductive to give the impression in any way that can be interpreted by the interviewee as trying to establish
blame. The purpose of the accident interview is to uncover additional information about the hazardous conditions, unsafe work
practices, and related system weaknesses that contributed to the accident. Consequently, it's very important that effective
techniques to establish trust and a cooperative atmosphere be used by the interviewer during the process.
What are effective ways to increase cooperation in the accident interview process? What communication strategies might
increase the likelihood of an adversarial relationship in the interview? As you conduct interviews, gaining experience along
the way, you'll further develop the "art" of interviewing by improving your ability to apply these techniques.
Know what you're going to ask.
Preparing for the Interview
Your first task is to determine who to interview. You will need to design your questions around the
interviewee. Consequently, each interview will be a very unique experience. Interviews should occur as soon as possible,
but usually they do not happen until things have settled down just a bit. Below are some people you may want to consider
- The victim: To determine the immediate events leading up to and including the accident.
- Co-workers: To establish what actual vs. appropriate procedures are being used.
- Direct supervisor: To get background information on the victim. He or she can provide procedural
information about the task that was being performed, the training provided, workload, scheduling, and resources being
- Manager: To get information on related operational and safety management programs/systems.
- Training department: To get information on quantity and quality of training the victim and others
- Personnel department: To get information on the victim's and other employees' work history,
- Maintenance personnel: To determine background on corrective and preventive maintenance.
- Emergency responders: To learn what they saw and did when responding to the accident.
- Medical personnel: To get medical information (as allowed by law).
- Coroner: Can be a valuable source to determine type/extent of fatal injuries.
- Police: If they filed a report.
- Other interested persons: Anyone interested in the accident may be a valuable source of
- The victim's spouse and family: They may have insight into the victim's state of mind or other
Effective Interviewing Techniques
Good Interview Techniques
An important aspect of your job, as the interviewer, is to construct a composite story or "word picture" of what happened
using the various accounts of the accident and other evidence. To do that, you will need to understand effective interview
techniques and be able to skillfully apply those techniques.
It's important to remember that you are conducting an accident investigation, not a criminal investigation. These two
interview processes may be similar, but each has a unique purpose. Each process requires different techniques to achieve the
intended purpose. The last thing you want to do in an accident investigation is to come down hard (be accusatory) on an
interviewee. So let's take a look at some effective techniques that will assure you get to the facts...not find fault.
- Keep the purpose of the investigation in mind: To determine the cause of the accident so that similar accidents will
not recur. The interview process is not conducted to determine liability, but to determine the facts so that any and all
safety management system design and implementation weaknesses can be improved. Make sure the interviewee understands
this point: "We don't want you or anyone else to get hurt like this again."
- Do not interview more than one person at a time. When others hear an interviewee's account of what happened, their
own stories will probably change in some way.
- First, ask for background information like name, job, and phone number. Then, simply have the witness tell you what
happened. Let them talk, and you just listen. Don't ask them "if" they can explain what happened, because they may respond
with a simple "no," and that's that.
- Approach the investigation with an open mind. It will be obvious if you have preconceptions about the individuals or
- Go to the scene. Just because you are familiar with the location or the victim's job, don't assume that things are
always the same. If you can't conduct a private interview at the location, find an office or meeting room that the
interviewee considers a "neutral" location.
- Put the person at ease. Explain the purpose and your role. Sincerely express concern regarding the accident and
desire to prevent a similar occurrence.
- Tell the interviewee that the information they give is important. It's important to say it's "important".
- Be friendly, understanding, and open minded. Be calm and unhurried.
More Effective Interviewing Techniques
- Don't ask leading questions; don't interrupt; and don't make expressions (facial, verbal of approval or
- Do ask open-ended questions to clarify particular areas or get specifics. Try to avoid closed-ended questions
that require a simple yes and no answer. Try to avoid asking "why-you" questions as these type of questions tend to
make people respond defensively. Example: Do not ask: "Why did you drive the forklift with under-inflated tires?
Rather, ask: What are forklift inspection procedures? or "Tell me about the forklift inspection procedure."
- Repeat the facts and sequence of events back to the person to avoid any misunderstandings.
- Notes should be taken very carefully, and as casually as possible. Let the individual read your notes so that
they can possibly fill in missing information and correct inaccuracies. Give the interviewee a copy of the notes.
Have the interviewee initial that they have read and found the notes accurate.
- Don't use a tape recorder unless you get permission. Tell the interviewee that the purpose of the recorder is
to make sure the information is accurate. Offer to give the interviewee a copy of the tape.
- If the interviewee wants to have someone witness the interview, that's fine. In most union environments, this
is an employee right.
- Ask for the interviewee's opinion about what caused the accident and what can be done to make sure it doesn't
happen again. Do not accept answers that accuse or place blame. Note: There is never enough information to establish
blame at this phase of the investigation. Only after the investigation is complete and closed out will the need for
discipline be discussed, and that's usually the responsibility of the supervisor and the Human Resource Department,
not the accident investigator.
- Conclude the interview with a statement of appreciation for their contribution. Ask them to contact you if they
think of anything else. If possible, relay the outcome of the investigation to each person who was interviewed. Again,
do not discuss the possibility of disciplinary action.
Understanding and applying the information above during the interview process will help establish a high level of trust
and a cooperative relationship so that you can get to the facts. Remember, intimidation and placing blame has no place in
the accident investigation process and besides, it just doesn't work.
Check your Work
Read the material in each section to find the correct answer to each quiz question. After answering all the questions,
click on the "Check Quiz Answers" button to grade your quiz and see your score. You will receive a message if you forgot
to answer one of the questions. After clicking the button, the questions you missed will be listed below. You can correct
any missed questions and check your answers again.