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Course 704 - Hazard Analysis and Control

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Safety guides and audits to make your job as a safety professional easier

Identifying Hazards

Introduction

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Identifying Hazards.

The first step in controlling workplace hazards is to first identify them. We want to determine what hazards are present. Once hazards are identified, you'll conduct an analysis to examine more closely the nature of the hazard. You want to know what it looks like, what kind of accidents might it cause, and how severe the resulting injuries might be. Analysis requires that each item or component be examined to see how it relates to or influences the whole.

Safety inspections should do more than simply identify hazardous conditions. They should provide useful data for the purpose of effective analysis and evaluation of the safety management system.

There are five basic methods you can use to identify workplace hazards before an accident occurs:

  • informal observations, and formal observation programs;
  • comprehensive company-wide surveys;
  • individual interviews;
  • walk-around inspections; and
  • documentation review.

As we'll learn, observing work each day is extremely important in identifying hazards. Surveys take advantage of employee awareness of the presence of workplace hazards. Interviews are valuable in uncovering hazardous conditions, unsafe work practices, and their root causes. Walk-around inspections are useful to locate hazardous conditions and, to a lesser degree, unsafe work practices in the workplace. Reviewing documentation such as the OSHA 300 Log, safety committee minutes and accident reports also helps to determine workplace hazards. Now, let's take a look at each of these five methods or "tools" to identify hazards.

Informal Observation and Formal Observation Programs

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Observation programs are important.

An informal observation process is nothing more than being watchful for hazards and unsafe behaviors throughout the work shift. No special procedure is involved. All employees should be expected to look over their work areas once in a while.

One of the most effective proactive methods to collect useful data about the hazards and unsafe behaviors in your workplace is the formal observation program because it includes a written plan and procedures. For example, safety committee members or other employees who may be assigned to complete a minimum number of observations of safe/unsafe behaviors during a given period of time. This data is gathered and analyzed to produce graphs and charts reflecting the current status and trends in employee behaviors. Posting the results of these observations tends to increase awareness and lower injury rates. But, more importantly, the data gives valuable clues about safety management system weaknesses.

Observation is important because it can be a great tool to effectively identify behaviors that account for 95 percent of all workplace injuries. The walkaround inspection, as a method for identifying hazards, may not be as effective as observation in identifying unsafe behaviors.

Note: An important policy for successful formal observation procedures is that they are not, in any way, linked to discipline. Observers should not discipline or "snitch" on employees: To do so ensures any observation program will fail as an accurate fact-finding tool. I recommend using only employees who do not have authority to discipline as observers in the program. If you must use managers or supervisors, make sure they do not observe in their own areas of responsibility, and make sure they understand the policy regarding "no discipline" as a consequence of an observation. It is also important for observers to express appreciation when safe behaviors are observed, and remind or warn employees to use safe practices if they are not performing a task safely.

Comprehensive Surveys

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Employee surveys can identify many hazards.

Comprehensive surveys are not the same as interviews or inspections. An interview is a verbal exchange conducted one-on-one, preferably in private, and has the potential to gather more information. An inspection is often done by employees at the workplace who walk around observing the workplace and asking questions in public.

Comprehensive surveys ideally should be performed by people who can bring to your worksite fresh vision and extensive knowledge of safety, health, or industrial hygiene. Because there are few professional consultants equipped to do comprehensive surveys in all three areas, the best approach is to use a team consisting of outside specialists: a safety professional and an industrial hygienist.

We encourage you to take advantage of OSHA's safety and health consultative services if available in your state. Just call your local OSHA field office and schedule a visit. Workers' compensation insurance providers and other insurance companies offer expert services to help their clients evaluate safety and health hazards. Private consultants may also provide excellent specialized services to help determine workplace hazards.

For an industrial hygiene survey you should, at a minimum, inventory all chemicals and hazardous materials in the plant, review your hazard communication program, and analyze air samples. For many industries, a survey of noise levels and a review of the respirator program also will be vital. Companies participating in OSHA's SHARP and VPP must conduct initial comprehensive surveys.

Interviewing Employees

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Employee interviews: a great tool.

Interviews differ from surveys. Whereas surveys ask many people the same questions, an interview is a one-on-one process that asks unique questions. Outside experts may or may not conduct interviews during comprehensive surveys. If they do, that's great. If they don't, it becomes important for someone in-house conduct the interviews. A wealth of information, over and above what might be possible from a survey, may be obtained by conducting interviews with employees.

When conducting the interview keep the following tips in mind:

  • Put the person at ease.
  • Keep the purpose of the interview in mind: It's to get the employee's help in determining the types of hazards that exist in his or her work area. Go to the work area to conduct the interview. Just because you are familiar with the location or the employee's job, don’t assume that things are always the same.
  • Explain the purpose and your role. Tell the employee exactly why you are conducting the interview to reduce any initial reluctance to participate.
  • Stress that the information given is important. It may help eliminate hazards that have the potential to kill, injure or produce illness. Information given may also help to make the work procedure more efficient too.
  • Be friendly, understanding, and open minded. Try to keep the interview informal. Your approach is important. Make sure they sense that you care about their safety.
  • Be calm and unhurried. If you are agitated, or in a hurry to get the interview over, you'll be sending a negative message that the employee will see.
  • Let the individual talk. Don't interrupt while they are talking. It's easy to think you have all the information. Many important facts may not be uncovered if you cut them off.
  • Ask background information, name, job, etc . . . This just helps to smoothly transition into the actual interview. Small talk...then get to business.
  • The key initial statement. Ask the witness to tell you about the hazards they are aware of. Don't ask them if they know of any hazards: they could easily just say "no."
  • Don't ask leading questions. They are not on trial.
  • Ask follow-up questions. This will help to clarify particular areas or get specifics.
  • Do not put the person on the defensive. If there are hazards present, don't in any way question the employee in a manner that might accuse or blame them of wrong doing.
  • Try to avoid yes and no answer questions. Ask open-ended questions. One effective question is..."Tell me about the procedures for..."
  • Actively listen. Repeat the information given. Rephrase. Communicate to understand.
  • Take notes. Notes should be taken very carefully, and as casually as possible. Let the individual read them if desired.
  • Use a tape recorder. But always get permission from the employee first. Offer to give them a copy of the tape if they hesitate.
  • Thank the employee. Conclude the interview with a statement of appreciation for their contribution.
  • Be available. Ask them to contact you if they think of anything else.
  • Provide feedback. If possible, advise the person the outcome of the interview.

Workplace Inspections

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Safety inspections identify conditions.

Inspections are the best understood and most frequently used tool to assess the workplace for hazards. Much has been written about them, and many inspection checklists are available in various OSHA publications. The term "inspection" means a general walk-around examination of every part of the worksite to locate conditions that do not comply with safety standards. This includes routine industrial hygiene monitoring and sampling.

Sometimes the term, "audit" is substituted for the term "inspection." Actually, an audit is a little different. The audit is actually an evaluation tool because the process involves giving a numerical rating of some kind to items that are being audited. While inspections involve locating hazardous conditions, audits more generally involve locating ineffective or missing safety programs.

Inspection Frequency

The regular site inspection should be done at specified intervals. The employer should inspect as often as the type of operation or character of equipment requires. Think about the most hazardous operation or location in your company. How often are safety inspections conducted there?

OSHA expects all places of employment to be inspected by a qualified person or persons as often as the type of operation or the character of the equipment requires. Defective equipment or unsafe conditions found by these inspections should be replaced or repaired or remedied promptly.

Safety committees can play an important role in the success of the hazard identification and control program. The safety committee can assist the employer in evaluating the employer's accident and illness prevention program, and submit valuable written recommendations to improve the program where applicable. In addition, the safety committee can:

(i) Establish procedures for workplace inspections by the safety committee inspection team to locate and identify safety and health hazards;

(ii) Conduct regular workplace inspections; and

(iii) Recommend to the employer how to eliminate hazards and unsafe work practices in the workplace.

The inspection team can document in writing the location and identity of the hazards and make recommendations to the employer regarding correction of the hazards. Regular inspections of satellite locations should be conducted by the committee team or by a person designated at the location.

I'm sure you can see from the above discussion that a regular inspection by the safety committee may not be sufficient to ensure hazards are effectively identified. The frequency of the safety inspection is really a judgment call for the employer, but at a minimum, medium and large fixed worksites should be inspected completely at least every quarter, with some part of the inspection occurring each month. The frequency of a safety inspection depends on the nature of the work and workplace. More frequent change and higher probability for serious injury or illness requires more frequent inspection. For construction sites, daily inspections are a must because of the rapidly changing nature of the site and its hazards.

At small fixed worksites, the entire site should be inspected at one time. And even for the smallest worksite, inspections should be done at least quarterly. If the small worksite uses hazardous materials or involves hazardous procedures or conditions that change frequently, inspections should be done more often.

Sound Safety Inspection Policy: All employees should inspect their area of responsibility at the beginning and end of each shift, and bridge the inspections with continual observation. If a hazardous condition is observed, eliminate it if you safely can, or report it immediately.

What Should We Inspect?

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Supervisors should be involved.

A methodical inspection will follow a checklist based on the inventory of hazards and the preventive actions and controls designed to reduce or eliminate worker exposure. Regular site inspections should be designed to check each one of those controls to make sure that hazards are contained.

Do not overlook areas outside of the production mainstream. Your search for common hazards and OSHA standards violations should cover the entire worksite, including all office areas.

Who Should Inspect?

From your reading earlier, you already know that the safety committee may be responsible for conducting regular safety inspections. But that is where it ends, and that should not be. Supervisors and other employees should be conducting safety inspections on a regular basis.

Supervisors.: Employers should make it the supervisor's responsibility to inspect his/her work area at the beginning of every shift to ensure equipment and personnel are ready to work safely. This can be particularly helpful when other shifts use the same area and equipment or when after-hours maintenance and cleaning are routinely done.

Employees: Involving employees in all aspects of the safety and health program, including hazard identification and control, is smart business. Get as many employees involved as you can.

Get Educated in Hazard Identification

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Inspectors must be properly trained.

Safety and health staff: Employees who specialize in safety and health can be an excellent source of help in providing the necessary education and training on hazard identification. In a small business, the specialist may be a Production/Quality Control manager or another member of management with many important duties in addition to safety and health.

Inspector Training Options

Employees: All employees should have training in the hazards that they may be exposed to during work. When they are responsible for workstation inspections, employees also should have specific training in how to inspect. On-the-job training with the supervisor can be an excellent strategy to ensure adequate education (understanding of consequences) and training (the how-to) is conducted.

Supervisors: All supervisors should be properly educated about their safety responsibilities. They should have training in identifying and controlling the hazards that workers under their supervision are likely to encounter. When they are responsible for area inspections, supervisors should have specific training on how to conduct safety inspections. Formal course work may not be necessary, but the training should be provided by someone who is competent (has experience and training).

Safety committee members and employees: All safety committee members and employees should understand the potential hazards to which they might be exposed and the ways they can protect themselves and their fellow workers. Those who are involved in inspections need training in recognizing and controlling all the potential hazards of the worksite. They will also need written guidance, tips for inspecting, and some on-the-job training by safety and health staff or other specialists.

Written Inspection Reports

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Get it in writing.

In all but the smallest and least dangerous of workplaces, written inspection reports are necessary to record hazards discovered, responsibility assigned for correction, and tracking of correction to completion. Formal safety inspections should include a written report with recommendations for corrective action.

A written record will help ensure:

  • Assignment of responsibility for hazard correction.
  • Tracking of correction to completion.
  • Identification of problems in the controls system when the same types of hazards keep appearing even after correction is verified.
  • Identification of problems in the accountability system.
  • Identification of hazards for which no prevention or control has been planned.

Of course, having such written records will be most helpful if they are read by someone knowledgeable in the safety and health program. This person then can provide top managers with summaries of problems.

Beware of "Tunnel Vision"

If you use experts from within your company, be on guard for "tunnel vision," which can lead to a failure to spot hazards in areas not directly related to your firm's primary function. You want your maintenance shop, for example, to be just as safe as your production line. OSHA frequently finds unguarded saws and grinders, non-code electrical wiring, and other basic safety hazards in areas that are outside the main production process but regularly used by employees.

Review Documents

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Review the results.

Assessing the workplace would not be complete without thoroughly reviewing existing documents to determine what kinds of hazards have existed in the workplace prior to the assessment. Actually, document review may be considered both an assessment tool and an analysis tool. Not only are we able to determine the hazards that have caused accidents in the past, we can analyze to uncover trends in the types, locations, date/time, etc. for accidents.

You need to review these documents to assess workplace hazards:

  • OSHA 300 Log (of course)
  • OSHA Form 301, Injury and Illness Incident Report
  • Maintenance work orders
  • Accident reports
  • Safety committee minutes
  • Safety suggestions
  • Training evaluations

Last Words

All these activities to identify hazards in the workplace are so important to the overall effectiveness of your safety management system. Be sure you integrate these activities into the line positions...employees, supervisors and managers...safety is a line responsibility! It's time to take your module quiz.

Instructions

Before beginning this quiz, we highly recommend you review the module material. This quiz is designed to allow you to self-check your comprehension of the module content, but only focuses on key concepts and ideas.

Read each question carefully. Select the best answer, even if more than one answer seems possible. When done, click on the "Get Quiz Answers" button. If you do not answer all the questions, you will receive an error message.

Good luck!

1. The identification process determines ______________:

2. An analysis process examines ______________:

3. Which of the following is not discussed in this module as one of the five basic actions you can take to identify workplace hazards?

4. ______________ are considered one of the most effective proactive methods to collect useful data about the hazards and unsafe behaviors in your workplace.

5. Comprehensive surveys ideally should be performed by people ___________________:

6. An important policy for successful formal observation procedures is that they are always linked to discipline.

7. According to the text, this method for identifying hazards, may not identify unsafe behaviors as effectively as observation.

8. What is a major weakness of the walk-around safety inspection?

9. Comprehensive safety surveys are best conducted by in-house experts.

10. The frequency of a safety inspection should depend on __________________.


Have a great day!

Important! You will receive an "error" message unless all questions are answered.