Hi, and welcome to the course.
This course is designed to help you understand the fundamentals of occupational safety and health, and how you can be an proactive member of your
workplace safety program.
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Study each course module. To start, click on the course "Modules" tab above. On average, it takes about 30 minutes
to one hour to complete each module, including the module quiz. Take your time and make sure you understand the course material.
Complete each module quiz. At the end of each module is a short quiz with questions related to the module. When you
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Complete and submit the final course exam.
Final exams consist of 20 questions taken from the course.
The exam is OPEN BOOK. You can use your notes or the study guide to help answer questions you are unsure of.
You must pass the final exam with at least an 70% score.
If you do not pass the exam, you may retake the exam.
If you pass the exam, you may not retake the exam just to raise your score.
Hint: Most final exam questions are derived from module quizzes.
Introduction: The Numbers
Overview of the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) - Emedco
More than 30 million workers are potentially exposed to one or more chemical hazards. There are an estimated 650,000 existing hazardous chemical products, and hundreds of new ones are being
introduced annually. This poses a serious problem for exposed workers and their employers.
The OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) - 29 CFR 1910.1200 provides workers exposed to hazardous chemicals with the right-to-know the identities and hazards of those materials, as
well as appropriate protective measures. When workers have such information, they are able to take steps to protect themselves from experiencing adverse effects from exposure.
It's important that you be familiar with OSHA's hazard communication standards to help save lives and avoid OSHA citations.
Take a look at OSHA's top 10 most cited violations for 2016 and you will see that hazard communication ranks high.
Employers must provide employees with effective information and training on hazardous chemicals in their work area. (Click to enlarge)
Top 10 most frequently cited OSHA standards violations for 2016:
Control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout)
Powered industrial trucks
Electrical, wiring methods, components and equipment
Machine guarding (machines, general requirements, general industry)
Electrical systems design, general requirements
Protection under the Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) includes all workers exposed to hazardous chemicals in all industrial sectors. This standard is based on a simple concept - that
employees have both a need and a right to know the hazards and the identities of the chemicals they are exposed to when working. They also need to know what protective measures are available
to prevent adverse effects from occurring.
The HCS covers both physical hazards (such as flammability or the potential for explosions), and health hazards (including both acute and chronic effects). By making information available to
employers and employees about these hazards, and recommended precautions for safe use, proper implementation of the HCS will result in a reduction of illnesses and injuries caused by chemicals.
Employers will have the information they need to design an appropriate protective program. Employees will be better able to participate in these programs effectively when they understand the
hazards involved, and take steps to protect themselves. Together, these employer and employee actions will prevent the occurrence of adverse effects caused by the use of chemicals in the workplace.
Check out this short audio clip by Dan Clark of the theSafetyBrief.com discusses new requirements for labeling chemicals. In this podcast, HazCom industry expert Chuck Paulausky details these new standards, based on the Globally Harmonized System, GHS.
This course will focus on the responsibilities of the employer in establishing and implementing an effective hazard communication program. By the end of this course you should be able to:
List the primary Hazard Communications Standard responsibilities for manufacturers, distributors, importers, and employers.
Describe the four basic elements of the Hazard Communications Program.
Discuss the nature of chemical hazards and the types of exposures they present.
List the information required on each of the four types of hazardous chemical containers.
Describe each of the 16 sections of a Safety Data Sheet (SDS).
Identify the basic requirements of the hazard communication training program.
To begin your training, click on the module links below. If you are just starting this course, you should start with module 1.
OSHAcademy course final exams are designed to help ensure students demonstrate a sufficient understanding of the
content covered within each course. To help demonstrate this understanding, students must achieve a minimum score of
70% on final exams. It is OSHAcademy's policy to protect the integrity of our exams and, as a result, we do not
provide missed questions to students.
After you have studied all of the course material and taken the module quizzes, you can take the final exam. The
module quizzes are optional, but we highly recommend you take each quiz, as the questions are similar to those on the
This is an open book exam. As you are taking the exam, if you find a question you are unsure of,
you should use the course study guide or course web pages to research the correct answer. Don't worry if you fail the
exam. You can study and retake the exam when you are ready.
If you have already paid for a Certificate Program
If you have already paid for your certificates, your exam score will be displayed in your student dashboard next
to the course. You will also be able to view or print the course PDF certificate if you purchased this option. Your
PDF transcript will also be automatically updated to include the course.
If you only want free training
You are welcome to take all of our courses for free! We only charge a fee if you want certificates, transcripts
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exam results and you will see "Completed!" next to the course if you passed the exam. If you did not pass the exam
with a score of 70% or higher, you will need to retake the exam.
Take the Final Exam
705 Study Guide. You can save this study guide to your computer for offline studying, or
print the study guide if you prefer.
Absorbed Dose. The amount of a substance that actually enters into the body, usually expressed as milligrams of substance per kilogram of body weight (mg/kg).
ACGIH. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists is an organization of government and academic professionals engaged in occupational safety and health programs. ACGIH establishes recommended occupational exposure limits for chemical substances and physical agents known as Threshold Limit Values; see TLV.
Acid. A compound that undergoes dissociation in water with the formation of hydrogen ions. Acids have pH values below 7 and will neutralize bases or alkaline media. Acids will react with bases to form salts. Acids have a sour taste and with a pH in the 0 to 2 range cause severe skin and eye burns.
Acute Dose. The amount of a substance administered or received over a very short period of time (minutes or hours), usually within 24 hours.
Acute Toxicity. Those adverse effects occurring following oral or dermal administration of a single dose of a substance, or multiple doses given within 24 hours, or an inhalation exposure of
Aerosol means any non-refillable receptacle made of metal, glass or plastics and containing a gas compressed, liquefied or dissolved under pressure, with or without a liquid, paste or powder, and fitted with a release device allowing the contents to be ejected as solid or liquid particles in suspension in a gas, as a foam, paste or powder or in a liquid state or in a gaseous state. Aerosol includes aerosol dispensers.
Alkali. (Also referred to as a base). A compound that has the ability to neutralize an acid and form a salt. Alkali also forms a soluble soap with a fatty acid. Alkalis have pH values between 7 and 14. They are bitter in a water solution. Alkalis with pH values between 12 and 14 are considered to be corrosive (caustic) and will cause severe damage to the skin, eyes and mucous membranes. Common strong alkalis are the substance sodium and mixture potassium hydroxide.
Allergic Reaction. An abnormal immunologic response in a person who has become hypersensitive to a specific substance. Some forms of dermatitis and asthma may be caused by allergic reactions to chemicals.
Alloy means a metallic material, homogeneous the naked eye, consisting of two or more elements so combined that they cannot be readily separated by mechanical means. Alloys are considered to be mixtures for the purpose of classification under the GHS.
ANSI. The American National Standards Institute is a privately funded, voluntary membership organization that identifies industrial and public needs for national consensus standards and coordinates development of such standards.
Aspiration means the entry of a liquid or solid chemical product into the trachea and lower respiratory system directly through the oral or nasal cavity, or indirectly from vomiting;
ASTM means the American Society for Testing and Materials develops voluntary consensus standards for materials, products, systems, and services. ASTM is a resource for sampling and testing methods, information on health and safety aspects of materials, safe performance guidelines, and effects of physical agents, biological agents, and chemicals.
Autoignition Temperature. The lowest temperature at which a flammable gas or vapor-air mixture will spontaneously ignite without spark or flame. Vapors and gases will spontaneously ignite at lower temperatures as the concentration of oxygen increases in the air. The autoignition temperature may also be influenced by the presence of catalytic substances. Materials should not be heated to greater than 80% of the autoignition temperature.
BCF means "bioconcentration factor".
Benign. Not recurrent or not tending to progress; not cancerous.
BOD/COD means "biochemical oxygen demand/chemical oxygen demand".
Boiling Point (BP). The temperature at which a liquid changes to a vapor state, at a given pressure; usually expressed in degrees of Fahrenheit or Centigrade at sea level pressure (760 mm Hg or one atmosphere). Flammable materials with low boiling points generally present special fire hazards. Initial boiling point is the temperature of a liquid at which its vapor pressure is equal to the standard pressure (101.3 kPa28; 14.7 psi), i.e., the first gas bubble appears.
CA means "competent authority".
Carcinogen means substance or a mixture of substances which induce cancer or increase its incidence. Substances and mixtures which have induced benign and malignant tumors in well- performed experimental studies on animals are considered also to be presumed or suspected human carcinogens unless there is strong evidence that the mechanism of tumor formation is not relevant for humans.
CAS means "Chemical Abstract Service".
CAS Number. A number assigned to a specific chemical by the Chemical Abstracts Service, an organization operated by the American Chemical Society. CAS Numbers are used internationally to identify specific chemicals or mixtures.
CBI means "confidential business information".
cc. Cubic centimeter is a volume measurement in the metric system that is equal in capacity to one milliliter (ml). One quart is approximately 946 cubic centimeters.
CFR. Code of Federal Regulations. A collection of the regulations that have been promulgated under United States law.
Chemical. The name assigned to any substance, or mixture of substances.
Chemical Name means a name given to a chemical in the nomenclature system developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) or the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) or a name that will clearly identify the chemical for hazard classification purposes.
Chemicals which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases. Solid or liquid chemicals which, by interaction with water, are liable to become spontaneously flammable or to give off flammable gases in dangerous quantities.
Chemical which is corrosive to metals. A chemical which by chemical action will materially damage, or even destroy, metals.
Chronic Toxicity. Adverse effects resulting from repeated doses or exposures to a substance over a relatively prolonged period of time.
Competent authority means any national body(ies) or authority(ies) designated or otherwise recognized as such in connection with the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS).
Compressed gas means a gas which when packaged under pressure is entirely gaseous at -50°C; including all gases with a critical temperature £ -50°C.
Contact sensitizer means a substance that will induce an allergic response following skin contact. The definition for "contact sensitizer" is equivalent to "skin sensitizer".
Corrosive to metal means a substance or a mixture which by chemical action will materially damage, or even destroy, metals.
Criteria means the technical definition for the physical, health and environmental hazards;
Critical temperature means the temperature above which a pure gas cannot be liquefied, regardless of the degree of compression.
Decomposition. Breakdown of a material or substance into simpler substances by heat, chemical reaction, electrolysis, decay, or other processes.
Dermal. Relating to the skin.
Dermal Corrosion: see skin corrosion;
Dermal irritation: see skin irritation.
DNA. Deoxyribonucleic acid; the molecules in the nucleus of the cell that contain genetic information.
Dose. The amount of a substance received at one time. Dose is usually expressed as administered or absorbed dose (e.g., milligrams material/kilogram of body weight).
Dissolved gas means a gas which when packaged under pressure is dissolved in a liquid phase solvent.
DOT. U.S. Department of Transportation; the federal agency that regulates transportation of chemicals and other hazardous and non-hazardous substances.
EC50 means the effective concentration of a substance that causes 50% of the maximum response.
EC Number or (ECN°) is a reference number used by the European Communities to identify dangerous substances, in particular those registered under EINECS.
ECOSOC means the "Economic and Social Council of the United Nations".
EINECS means "European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances".
End Point means physical, health and environmental hazards;
Epidemiology. The branch of science concerned with the study of human disease in specific populations, in order to develop information about the causes of disease and identify preventive measures.
ErC50 means EC50 in terms of reduction of growth rate.
EU means "European Union".
Evaporation Rate. The ratio of the time required to evaporate a measured volume of a liquid to the time required to evaporate the same volume of a reference liquid (butyl acetate, ethyl ether) under ideal test conditions. The higher the ratio, the slower the evaporation rate. The evaporation rate can be useful in evaluating the health and fire hazards of a material.
Explosive article means an article containing one or more explosive substances.
Explosive chemical. A solid or liquid chemical which is in itself capable by chemical reaction of producing gas at such a temperature and pressure and at such a speed as to cause damage to the surroundings. Pyrotechnic chemicals are included even when they do not evolve gases.
Explosive item. An item containing one or more explosive chemicals.
Explosive Limits. The range of concentrations of a flammable gas or vapor (percent by volume in air) in which an explosion can occur if an ignition source is present. Also see Flammable Limits, LEL, and UEL.
Explosive substance means a solid or liquid substance (or mixture of substances) which is in itself capable by chemical reaction of producing gas at such a temperature and pressure and at such a speed as to cause damage to the surroundings. Pyrotechnic substances are included even when they do not emit gases.
Eye irritation means the production of changes in the eye following the application of test substance to the front surface of the eye, which are fully reversible within 21 days of application.
Flammable. A material which is easily ignited and burns with extreme rapidity. The two primary measures of this physical hazard are the flashpoint and the autoignition temperature.
Flammable gas means a gas having a flammable range with air at 20°C (68°F) and a standard pressure of 101.3 kPa (14.7 psi).
Flammable liquid means a liquid having a flash point of not more than 93°C. For specific information on the definition and test methods of flammable materials, refer to 29 CFR 1910.1200. Also see: Flammable Gas, Flammable Liquid, and Flammable Solid.
Flammable solid means a solid which is readily combustible, or may cause or contribute to fire through friction.
Flashback. Occurs when flame from a torch burns back into the tip, the torch, or the hose. It is often accompanied by a hissing or squealing sound with a smoky or sharp-pointed flame.
Flash point means the lowest temperature (corrected to a standard pressure of 101.3 kPa) at which the application of an ignition source causes the vapors of a liquid to ignite under specified test conditions.
Gas means a substance which (i) at 50 °C has a vapor pressure greater than 300 kPa; or (ii) is completely gaseous at 20 °C at a standard pressure of 101.3 kPa.
Gases under pressure. Gases which are contained in a receptacle at a pressure of 200 kPa (29 psi) (gauge) or more, or which are liquefied or liquefied and refrigerated. They comprise compressed gases, liquefied gases, dissolved gases and refrigerated liquefied gases.
Genetic. Pertaining to or carried by genes; hereditary.
Genotoxic and genotoxicity. These apply to agents or processes which alter the structure, information content, or segregation of DNA, including those which cause DNA damage by interfering with normal replication processes, or which in a non-physiological manner (temporarily) alter its replication. Positive genotoxicity test results are usually taken as indicators for mutagenic effects.
GESAMP means "the Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection of IMO/FAO/UNESCO/WMO/WHO/IAEA/UN/UNEP."
GHS means "the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and # Labelling of Chemicals".
Hazard. The inherent capacity of a substance to cause an adverse effect.
Hazard category means the division of criteria within each hazard class, e.g., oral acute toxicity includes five hazard categories and flammable liquids includes four hazard categories. These categories compare hazard severity within a hazard class and should not be taken as a comparison of hazard categories more generally.
Hazard class means the nature of the physical, health or environmental hazard, e.g., flammable solid carcinogen, oral acute toxicity.
Hazard not otherwise classified (HNOC). An adverse physical or health effect identified through evaluation of scientific evidence during the classification process that does not meet the specified criteria for the physical and health hazard classes addressed in this section. This does not extend coverage to adverse physical and health effects for which there is a hazard class addressed in this section, but the effect either falls below the cut-off value/concentration limit of the hazard class or is under a GHS hazard category that has not been adopted by OSHA (e.g., acute toxicity Category 5).
Hazard statement means a statement assigned to a hazard class and category that describes the nature of the hazards of a hazardous product, including, where appropriate, the degree of hazard;
Hazardous chemical. Any chemical which is classified as a physical hazard or a health hazard, a simple asphyxiant, combustible dust, pyrophoric gas, or hazard not otherwise classified.
Health hazard. A chemical which is classified as posing one of the following hazardous effects: acute toxicity (any route of exposure); skin corrosion or irritation; serious eye damage or eye irritation; respiratory or skin sensitization; germ cell mutagenicity; carcinogenicity; reproductive toxicity; specific target organ toxicity (single or repeated exposure); or aspiration hazard. The criteria for determining whether a chemical is classified as a health hazard are detailed in Appendix A to 29 CFR 1910.1200 -- Health Hazard Criteria.
IARC means the "International Agency for the Research on Cancer".
Ignitable. A solid, liquid or compressed gas which is capable of being set afire.
ILO means the International Agency for Research on Cancer, a component of the World Health
Organization, located in Lyon, France.
IMO means the "International Maritime Organization".
Inhalation. Breathing in of a substance in the form of a gas, vapor, fume, mist, or dust.
Initial boiling point means the temperature of a liquid at which its vapor pressure is equal to the standard pressure (101.3kPa), i.e., the first gas bubble appears.
Intentional explosive. A chemical or item which is manufactured with a view to produce a practical explosive or pyrotechnic effect.
In Vitro. Outside a living organism (e.g., in a test tube).
IOMC means the "Inter-organization Program on the Sound Management of Chemicals".
IPCS means the "International Program on Chemical Safety".
ISO means International Standards Organization.
IUPAC means the "International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry".
Label means an appropriate group of written, printed or graphic information elements concerning a hazardous product, selected as relevant to the target sector(s), that is affixed to, printed on, or attached to the immediate container of a hazardous product, or to the outside packaging of a hazardous product.
Label element means one type of information that has been harmonized for use in a label, e.g., pictogram, signal word.
Latency Period. The time that elapses between exposure and the first manifestations of disease or illness.
LC50 (50% lethal concentration) means the concentration of a chemical in air or of a chemical in water which causes the death of 50% (one-half) of a group of test animals.
LD50 - Lethal Concentration 50, 50% Lethal Concentration. The concentration of a chemical in air or of a chemical in water which causes the death of 50% (one half) of a group of test animals. The LC50 can be expressed in several ways:
as parts of material per million parts of air by volume (ppm) for gases and vapors,
as micrograms of material per liter of air (mg/l), or
as milligrams of material per cubic meter of air (mg/m3) for dusts and mists, as well as for gases and vapors.
L(E)C50 means LC50 or EC50.
LD50 - Lethal Dose 50. The amount of a chemical, given all at once, which causes the death of
50% (one half) of a group of test animals. The LD50 dose is usually expressed as milligrams or grams of material per kilogram of animal body weight (mg/kg or g/kg).
Liquefied gas means a gas which when packaged under pressure, is partially liquid at temperatures above-50°C. A distinction is made between.
High pressure liquefied gas: a gas with a critical temperature between -50°C and+65°C; and
Low pressure liquefied gas: a gas with a critical temperature above +65°C.
Liquid means a substance or mixture which at 50°C has a vapor pressure of not more than 300kPa (3bar), which is not completely gaseous at 20 °C and at a standard pressure of 101.3kPa, and which has a melting point or initial melting point of 20°C or less at a standard pressure of 101.3 kPa. A viscous substance or mixture for which a specific melting point cannot be determined shall be subjected to the ASTM D 4359-90 test; or to the test for determining fluidity (penetrometer test) prescribed in section 2.3.4 of Annex A of the European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR).
LEL or LFL - Lower Explosive Limit or Lower Flammable Limit. Lowest concentration of a substance in air (usually expressed in percent by volume) that will produce a flash or fire when an ignition source (heat, electric arc, or flame) is present. At concentrations lower than the LEL, propagation of a flame will not occur in the presence of an ignition source. Also see UEL.
m3. Cubic meter; a metric measure of volume, approximately 35.3 cubic feet or 1.3 cubic yards.
Malignant Tumor. A tumor that can invade surrounding tissues or metastasize to distant sites resulting in life-threatening consequences.
MARPOL means the "International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships".
Melting Point. The temperature at which a solid substance changes to a liquid state.
Metabolism (biotransformation). The conversion of a chemical from one form to another within the body.
Metabolite. A chemical produced during metabolism.
mg/kg. Milligrams of substance per kilogram of body weight, commonly used as an expression of toxicological dose (e.g., 15 mg/kg).
mg/m3. Milligrams per cubic meter; a unit for measuring concentrations of particulates or gases in the air (a weight per unit volume). For example, 20 mg/m3.
milligram (mg). The most commonly used unit of measure in medicine and toxicity consisting of one thousandth of a gram (1x10-3 g).
Mixture means a mixture or a solution composed of two or more substances in which they do not react.
ml. Milliliter; a metric unit of volume. There are 1,000 milliliters in one liter. 1 teaspoon = 5 milliliters.
MSDS means "Material Safety Data Sheet" and in this document is used interchangeably with Safety Data Sheet (SDS).
Mutagen means an agent giving rise to an increased occurrence of mutations in populations of cells and /or organisms.
Mutation. A permanent change in the amount or structure of the genetic material in a cell. The term “mutation” applies both to heritable genetic changes that may be manifested at the phenotypic level and to the underlying DNA modifications when known (including, for example, specific base pair changes and chromosomal translocations). The terms “mutagenic” and “mutagen” are used for agents giving rise to an increased occurrence of mutations in populations of cells and/or organisms.;
NFPA. The National Fire Protection Association is an international membership organization which promotes fire protection and prevention and establishes safeguards against loss of life and property by fire.
NGO means "non-governmental organization".
NIOSH. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health is a part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
NOEC means the "no observed effect concentration".
NTP. The National Toxicology Program is a component of the U.S. Public Health Service. The
NTP publishes the Annual Report on Carcinogens.
Odor Threshold. The lowest concentration of a substance in air that can be detected by smell.
OECD means "The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development".
Organic peroxide means liquid or solid organic chemical which contains the bivalent -0-0- structure and as such is considered a derivative of hydrogen peroxide, where one or both of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by organic radicals. The term organic peroxide includes mixtures containing at least one organic peroxide. Organic peroxides are thermally unstable chemicals, which may undergo exothermic self-accelerating decomposition. In addition, they may have one or more of the following properties:
Be liable to explosive decomposition;
Be sensitive to impact or friction;
React dangerously with other substances.
Oxidation. A change in a chemical characterized by the loss of electrons. Oxidation is a reaction in which a substance combines with oxygen.
Oxidizing gas. Any gas which may, generally by providing oxygen, cause or contribute to the combustion of other material more than air does. “Gases which cause or contribute to the combustion of other material more than air does” means pure gases or gas mixtures with an oxidizing power greater than 23.5% (as determined by a method specified in ISO 10156 or 10156-2; see Appendix B.4 of 29 CFR
Oxidizing liquid means a liquid which, while in itself not necessarily combustible, may, generally by yielding oxygen, cause, or contribute to, the combustion of other material.
Oxidizing solid means a solid which, while in itself not necessarily combustible, may, generally by yielding oxygen, cause, or contribute to, the combustion of other material.
PEL - Permissible Exposure Limit. A legally enforceable occupational exposure limit established by OSHA, usually measured as an eight-hour time-weighted average, but also may be expressed as a ceiling concentration exposure limit.
Physical hazard. A chemical that is classified as posing one of the following hazardous effects: explosive; flammable (gases, aerosols, liquids, or solids); oxidizer (liquid, solid or gas); self- reactive; pyrophoric (liquid or solid); self-heating; organic peroxide; corrosive to metal; gas under pressure; or in contact with water emits flammable gas. The criteria for determining whether a chemical is classified as a physical hazard are detailed in Appendix B to 29 CFR
1910.1200 -- Physical Hazard Criteria.
Pictogram means a graphical composition that may include a symbol plus other graphic elements, such as a border, background pattern or color that is intended to convey specific information.
ppm. Parts per million; the proportion (by volume) of a gas or vapor per million parts of air; also the concentration of a chemical in a liquid or solid form.
Precautionary statement means a phrase (and/or pictogram) that describes recommended measures that should be taken to minimize or prevent adverse effects resulting from exposure to a hazardous product, or improper storage or handling of a hazardous product.
Product identifier means the name or number used for a hazardous product on a label or in the SDS. It provides a unique means by which the product user can identify the substance or mixture within the particular use setting (e.g. transport, consumer or workplace).
Pyrophoric gas. A chemical in a gaseous state that will ignite spontaneously in air at a temperature of 130ºF (54.4ºC) or below.
Pyrophoric liquid means a liquid which, even in small quantities, is liable to ignite within five minutes after coming into contact with air.
Pyrophoric solid means a solid which, even in small quantities, is liable to ignite within five minutes after coming into contact with air.
Pyrotechnic article means an article containing one or more pyrotechnic substances;
Pyrotechnic chemical. A chemical designed to produce an effect by heat, light, sound, gas or smoke or a combination of these as the result of non-detonative self-sustaining exothermic chemical reactions.
Pyrotechnic item. An item containing one or more pyrotechnic chemicals.
Pyrotechnic substance means a substance or mixture of substances designed to produce an effect by heat, light, sound, gas or smoke or a combination of these as the result of non-detonative, self-sustaining exothermic (heat-related) chemical reactions.
QSAR means "quantitative structure-activity relationships".
Reactivity. A substance’s susceptibility to undergo a chemical reaction or change that may result in dangerous side effects, such as an explosion, burning, and corrosive or toxic emissions.
Readily combustible solid means powdered, granular, or pasty substance or mixture which is dangerous if it can be easily ignited by brief contact with an ignition source, such as a burning match, and if the flame spreads rapidly.
Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, Manual of Tests and Criteria means the latest revised edition of the United Nations publication bearing this title, and any published amendment thereto.
Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, Model Regulations means the latest revised edition of the United Nations publication bearing this title, and any published amendment thereto.
Refrigerated liquefied gas means a gas which when packaged is made partially liquid because of its low temperature.
Reproductive toxicity. This hazard includes adverse effects on sexual function and fertility in adult males and females, as well as adverse effects on development of the offspring. Some reproductive toxic effects cannot be clearly assigned to either impairment of sexual function and fertility or to developmental toxicity. Nonetheless, chemicals with these effects shall be classified as reproductive toxicants.
Respiratory sensitizer means a chemical that will lead to hypersensitivity of the airways following inhalation of the chemical.
RID means The Regulations concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail [Annex 1 to Appendix B (Uniform Rules concerning the Contract for International Carriage of Goods by Rail) (CIM) of COTIF (Convention concerning international carriage by rail)], as amended.
Risk. The probability that an adverse effect will occur.
SAR means "Structure Activity Relationship".
SDS means "Safety Data Sheet" and in this document is used interchangeably with Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS).
Self-Accelerating Decomposition Temperature (SADT) means the lowest temperature at which self-accelerating decomposition may occur with substance as packaged.
Self-heating chemical means a solid or liquid chemical, other than a pyrophoric substance, which, by reaction with air and without energy supply, is liable to self-heat; this substance differs from a pyrophoric substance in that it will ignite only when in large amounts (kilograms) and after long periods of time (hours or days).
Self-reactive chemical means a thermally unstable liquid or solid chemical liable to undergo a strongly exothermic decomposition even without participation of oxygen (air). This definition excludes substances or mixtures classified under the GHS as explosive, organic peroxides or as oxidizing.
Serious eye damage means the production of tissue damage in the eye, or serious physical decay of vision, following application of a test substance to the front surface of the eye, which is not fully reversible within 21 days of application.
Signal word means a word used to indicate the relative level of severity of hazard and alert the reader to a potential hazard on the label. The GHS uses 'Danger' and 'Warning' as signal words.
Simple asphyxiant. A substance or mixture that displaces oxygen in the ambient atmosphere, and can thus cause oxygen deprivation in those who are exposed, leading to unconsciousness and death.
Skin corrosion means the production of irreversible damage to the skin; namely, visible necrosis through the epidermis and into the dermis, following the application of a test substance for up to 4 hours. Corrosive reactions are typified by ulcers, bleeding, bloody scabs, and, by the end of observation at 14 days, by discoloration due to blanching of the skin, complete areas of alopecia (baldness), and scars. Histopathology should be considered to evaluate questionable lesions.
Skin irritation means the production of reversible damage to the skin following the application of a test substance for up to 4 hours.
Skin sensitizer means a substance that will induce an allergic response following skin contact. The definition for "skin sensitizer" is equivalent to "contact sensitizer".
Specific target organ toxicity - single exposure (STOT-SE). Specific, non-lethal target organ toxicity arising from a single exposure to a chemical. All significant health effects that can impair function, both reversible and irreversible, immediate and/or delayed and not specifically addressed in Appendices A.1 to A.7 and A.10 of 29 CFR 1910.1200 are included.
Specific target organ toxicity - repeated exposure (STOT-RE). Specific target organ toxicity arising from repeated exposure to a substance or mixture. All significant health effects that can impair function, both reversible and irreversible, immediate and/or delayed and not specifically addressed in Appendices A.1 to A.7 and A.10 of 29 CFR 1910.1200 are included.
Solid means a substance or mixture which does not meet the definitions of a liquid or gas.
Solubility. The ability of a substance to be dissolved in a solvent. Solubility is expressed according to the solvent (e.g., solubility in water, solubility in acetone, etc.).
SPR means "Structure Property Relationship".
STEL. Short-Term Exposure Limit (ACGIH terminology); see TLV.
Substance means chemical elements and their compounds in the natural state or obtained by any production process, including any additive necessary to preserve the stability of the product and any impurities deriving from the process used, but excluding any solvent which may be separated without affecting the stability of the substance or changing its composition.
Substance which, in contact with water, emits flammable gases means a solid or liquid substance or mixture which, by interaction with water, is liable to become spontaneously flammable or to give off flammable gases in dangerous quantities.
Supplemental label element means any additional non-harmonized type of information supplied on the container of a hazardous product that is not required or specified under the GHS. In some cases this information may be required by other competent authorities or it may be additional information provided at the discretion of the manufacturer/distributor.
Symbol means a graphical element intended to succinctly convey information.
Synonym. Another name or names by which a material is known. Methyl alcohol, for example, is also known as methanol or wood alcohol.
Target Organ. An organ on which a substance exerts a toxic effect.
Technical name means a name that is generally used in commerce, regulations and codes to identify a substance or mixture, other than the IUPAC or CAS name, and that is recognized by the scientific community. Examples of technical names include those used for complex mixtures (e.g., petroleum fractions or natural products), pesticides (e.g., ISO or ANSI systems), dyestuffs (Color Index system) and minerals.
Teratogen. A substance that can cause malformations or alterations in the appearance or function of a developing embryo.
TLV - Threshold Limit Value. The occupational exposure limit published by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). ACGIH expresses Threshold Limit Values in four ways:
TLV-TWA: The allowable Time-Weighted Average - A concentration for a normal 8- hour workday or 40-hour workweek.
TLV-STEL: Short-Term Exposure Limit - A maximum concentration for a continuous 15-minute exposure period (maximum of four such periods per day, with at least 60 minutes between exposure periods, and provided the daily TLV-TWA is not exceeded).
TLV-C - Ceiling limit - A concentration that should not be exceeded even instantaneously.
TLV-Skin - The skin designation refers to the potential contribution to the overall exposure by the cutaneous route, including mucous membranes and the eye. Exposure can be either by airborne or direct contact with the substance. This designation indicates that appropriate measures should be taken to prevent skin absorption.
Toxic Substance. Any substance that can cause injury or illness, or which is suspected of being able to cause injury or illness under some conditions.
Toxicity. A relative property of a chemical agent that refers to a harmful effect on some biological mechanism and the conditions under which this effect occurs.
Toxicology. The study of the harmful interactions of chemicals on living organisms and biological systems.
Trade Name. The trademark name or commercial trade name for a material or product.
TWA - Time-Weighted Average means the concentration of a material to which a person is exposed, averaged over the total exposure time – generally the total workday (8 to 12 hours); also see TLV.
UEL or UFL. Upper explosive limit or upper flammable limit; the highest concentration of a vapor or gas (highest percentage of the substance in air) that will produce a flash of fire when an ignition source (e.g., heat, arc, or flame) is present. At higher concentrations, the mixture is too “rich” to burn. Also see LEL.
UNCED means the "United Nations Conference on Environment and Development".
UNCETDG/GHS means the "United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods and on the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals".
UNITAR means the "United Nations Institute for Training and Research";
UNSCEGHS means the "United Nations Sub-Committee of Experts on the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals".
UNSCETDG means the "United Nations Sub-Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods".
Unstable. Decomposing readily or another unwanted chemical change during normal handling or storage.
Unstable explosive. An explosive which is thermally unstable and/or too sensitive for normal handling, transport, or use.
Vapor density. The weight of a vapor or gas compared to the weight of an equal volume of air is an expression of the density of the vapor or gas. Materials lighter than air (e.g., acetylene, methane, hydrogen) have vapor densities less than 1.0. Materials heavier than air (e.g., propane, hydrogen sulfide, and ethane) have vapor densities greater than 1.0. All vapors and gases will mix with air, but the lighter materials will tend to rise and dissipate (unless confined). Heavier vapors and gases are likely to concentrate in low places along or under floors, in sumps, sewers, manholes, trenches, and ditches, where they may create fire or health hazards.
Vapor pressure. Pressure exerted by a saturated vapor above its liquid in a closed container. Three facts are important to remember:
Vapor pressure of a substance at 100 deg F will always be higher than the vapor pressure of the substance at 68 deg F (20 deg C).
Vapor pressures reported on SDSs in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) are usually very low pressures; 760 mmHg is equivalent to 14.7 pounds per square inch (psi).
The lower the boiling point of a substance, the higher its vapor pressure.
Volatility. The tendency or ability of a liquid or solid material to form a gas at ordinary temperatures. Liquids such as alcohol and gasoline, because of their tendency to evaporate rapidly, are called volatile liquids.