The first step in preparing to conduct a JHA is to review all of the jobs in the workplace and make a list of those jobs that might require a JHA.
Get together with your employees and talk about the actual and potential hazards and unsafe behaviors they believe might exist in their current work and surroundings. Discuss the possible accidents that might result from the hazards and behaviors. Next, come up with ideas to eliminate or control those hazards and behaviors. By the way, if you can eliminate or reduce hazards, don't wait until the JHA is conducted. Eliminate or reduce the hazard as soon as possible.
Employees are prone to use their "own" procedures when not being supervised.
It is very important to involve your employees in the JHA process because they have a unique understanding of the job, and this knowledge is invaluable for finding hazards. Involving employees will help minimize oversights, ensure a quality analysis, and get workers to "buy in" to the solutions because they've helped in some way to develop the procedures. If they are not involved in developing the JHA, they will not be as likely to "own" the safe job procedures. As a result, they may not want to use safe procedures and practices that they believe have been "imposed" on them.
In this course we use a very simple process and format for developing a JHA. The table below shows the basic layout of the form we'll be using. We'll fill in the columns later as we cover each topic. You will see a great variety of JHA forms used by various companies. As you can see below, the JHA format includes the job description and three columns:
|BASIC TASK STEP||HAZARDS - POSSIBLE INJURIES||PREVENTIVE MEASURES|
|SAFE JOB PROCEDURE|
Each section in this course will include a quiz question at the bottom of the page. In the last section, you'll be able to check your score and retake the quiz if desired. Be sure to answer all questions or you won't see your score. To improve your score after you get results, just go back through the sections and change your answers. Do not refresh these pages or you'll have to answer all questions again.
During the job development process, focus primarily on identifying hazardous conditions and unsafe behaviors. Remember, it takes a hazard and exposure to the hazard before an accident can occur. It makes sense to look for hazards and job steps with unsafe behaviors that create exposure. Sources to help identify hazardous conditions and unsafe behaviors include:
If hazards that pose an immediate danger to an employee's life or health exist, take immediate action to protect the worker. Any problems that can be corrected easily should be corrected as soon as possible.
Some jobs may require potentially high-risk behaviors that should be identified in a JHA. High risk behaviors that might increase the probability and severity of an injury or illness include:
Review your worksite's history of accidents and illnesses that needed treatment and incidents that required repair or replacement of equipment. It's also important to look at near miss events in which an injury did not occur, but could have. These events are indicators that existing hazard controls (if any) may not be adequate and deserve more scrutiny.
Once you have identified tasks you believe might require a JHA, it's important to prioritize each task. To do this, analyze each task to determine their degree of risk. To determine the degree of risk objectively, it's important to know what risk is, so let's discuss the concept next.
The overall risk inherent in a job is a function of three variables: probability, severity and duration. The greater the probability, severity and exposure - the higher the risk while doing a job. More on this later.
Probability describes the likelihood that a worker will be injured or become ill if exposed to a hazard. Common terms used to describe probability are:
Severity is an estimate of how serious the injury or illness will be as a result of an accident. The severity of an injury or illness for any given exposure is largely fortuitous: it's a matter of chance or luck. For instance someone could fall from a plan and live to tell about it. It's not the fall, it's the nature of the sudden impact and orientation of the body that determines the severity of the injury. The common terms used to describe severity are:
Exposure is the condition of being exposed to hazard such that the employee is somehow affected by that hazard.
There are many factors that may increase the probability and severity of an accident. You may need to be able to discuss the factors that you considered if someone wants you to justify the particular level of risk at which you arrived. Some of these factors include:
Another simple technique to help determine the overall risk of the jobs for which you'll be conducting a JHA, is called the Risk Assessment Matrix. It's a simple process to determine the risk level of each job:
Once you've entered all tasks, you can easily prioritize each job to determine which jobs to analyze first.
To more precisely determine the risk of a job, you may want to quantify it with a numerical value or score. Quantifying risk helps justify why you have prioritized jobs based on the risk of injury or illness.
Using the two tables on the right, you can develop "risk scores" to indicate the degree of risk in each job.
For example, a job in which exposure to a danger zone is likely to result in an injury or illness would receive a Probability Score of "6" in the table to the right.
In this case, a job in which exposure might result in a lost time injury to one worker would receive a Severity Score of "50".
Multiplying the Probability Score (6) by the Severity Score (50) in the example to the right would result in a Risk Score of 300.
If more than one employee is exposed while performing the task, you would multiply the Probability/Severity Scores total by the number of employees. In this case, let's say two employees are working together on the job. Both are equally exposed. Using the formula below, the total Risk Score would by doubled to 600.
You might consider any job with a risk score of 200 or higher to be a high risk and, therefore, the Risk Score in this example indicates conducting a JHA on this job should be a top priority.
Now that you have some idea how much risk is involved in each job, you can prioritize them. As mentioned earlier, a common strategy is to prioritize the most hazardous job first. If a JHA is required for many tasks in your workplace, priority should go to the following types of jobs, in order of priority:
OSHAcademy Student Opinion: According to William I., it's important to understand that all the (potentially) "severe events" should be addressed first, then down to critical, etc. He has seen many cases where customers and safety professionals have focused on frequency issues because there is data to review and success to demonstrate. Meanwhile they ignore large loss potential events until they occur. In his opinion, as you address the large loss potential events, there is corollary benefit to the "less severe but more frequent" incidents.
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