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Course 706 - Conducting a Job Hazard Analysis (JHA)

Safety guides and audits to make your job as a safety professional easier

List the Procedure Steps

List the steps in the task.


Nearly every task can be broken down into a series of steps. Developing steps for a job is critical in the analysis process to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of each task.

One Step - One Action

The process of "analysis" in the context of a JHA includes breaking the "whole" procedure down into its basic steps. The idea is to carefully describe actions and hazards within each step, and how to mitigate those hazards through control strategies.

  • Each step in the task being analyzed will describe an action. It tells what the worker does in each step.

  • Actions may or may not be observable. An action may describe something that is done or not done.

1. In a Job Hazard Analysis, each step in the task being analyzed describes a/an _____. It tells what the worker _____ in each step.

a. process, thinks
b. procedure, reviews
c. action, does
d. action, thinks

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The Actor and the Action

Include both actor and action.

Each step in a procedure describes what the worker (actor) does (action), so let's take a look at each of these two components:

  • Actor: The actor is an individual or object that directly participates or assists in the procedure. The actor initiates a change by performing or NOT performing a particular action in a step.

  • Action: An action is "the something" that is done by an actor. Actions may or may not be observable. An action may describe a behavior that is accomplished or not accomplished. NOT performing an action should be thought of as just as important as performing an action when developing a step.

It's important to understand that when describing a step in writing, first identify the actor (if two or more workers are involved in the step) and then tell what the actor is supposed to do. For instance, take a look at the step below:

  • "Maintenance team leader: Attach the lockout device to the hasp."

In this example, the actor is identified because a team of maintenance workers is performing the task. The actor (Maintenance team leader) is identified first and then the action (attach) is described.

Also note that the statement is written in active tense. You would not state the step in passive tense. See the example of passive tense below:

  • "The lockout device is to be placed on the hasp by the maintenance team leader."

2. Each step in a task being analyzed in a JHA describes a unique _____.

a. tool
b. result
c. action
d. principle

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Tips on Conducting the JHA

Analyze the task. Do not evaluate the employee.
  • Be sure to record enough information to describe each job action without getting overly detailed at this point. You will include more detail later in the safe job procedure.

  • Avoid making the breakdown of steps so detailed that it becomes unnecessarily long. On the other hand, don't make it so broad that it does not include basic steps.

  • Get input from other workers who have performed the same job.

  • Review the job steps with the employee to make sure you have not omitted something.

  • Point out that you are analyzing the task, not evaluating the employee's job performance.

  • Include the employees in all phases of the analysis--from reviewing the job steps and procedures to discussing hazards and solutions.

  • It may be helpful to photograph or videotape the worker performing the job.

3. When conducting a Job Hazard Analysis, the objective is to _____ the task rather than _____ employee performance.

a. audit, review
b. evaluate, analyze
c. analyze, evaluate
d. audit, analyze

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Sample JHA Worksheet

The table below shows an example of the first three steps in the JHA. Notice that the two persons performing the task are identified.


1. Spotter: Spot position of trailer as it nears loading dock.
2. When the trailer is in position, turn engine off, set parking brake, and notify forklift operator.
3. Driver: Set chocks.

4. Which of the following is TRUE regarding each JHA Basic Task Step?

a. Combine steps when possible
b. Describe the actions of one person
c. List all persons performing a step
d. Always use the term "Employee #"

Check your Work

Read the material in each section to find the correct answer to each quiz question. After answering all the questions, click on the "Check Quiz Answers" button to grade your quiz and see your score. You will receive a message if you forgot to answer one of the questions. After clicking the button, the questions you missed will be listed below. You can correct any missed questions and check your answers again.

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