Nearly every task can be broken down into a series of steps. Developing steps for a job is critical in the analysis process to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of each task.
The process of "analysis" in the context of a JHA includes breaking the "whole" procedure down into its basic steps. The idea is to carefully describe actions and hazards within each step, and how to mitigate those hazards through control strategies.
Each step in the task being analyzed will describe an action. It tells what the worker does in each step.
Actions may or may not be observable. An action may describe something that is done or not done.
Each step in of a procedure describes what the worker (actor) does (action), so let's take a look at each of these two components:
Actor: The actor is an individual or object that directly participates or assists in the procedure. The actor initiates a change by performing or NOT performing a particular action in a step.
Action: An action is "the something" that is done by an actor. Actions may or may not be observable. An action may describe a behavior that is accomplished or not accomplished. NOT performing an action should be thought of as just as important as performing an action when developing a step.
It's important to understand that when describing a step in writing, first identify the actor (if two or more workers are involved in the step) and then tell what the actor is supposed to do. For instance, take a look at the step below:
"Maintenance team leader: Attach the lockout device to the hasp."
In this example, the actor is identified because a team of maintenance workers is performing the task. The actor (Maintenance team leader) is identified first and then the action (attach) is described.
Also note that the statement is written in active tense. You would not state the step in passive tense. See the example of passive tense below:
"The lockout device is to be placed on the hasp by the maintenance team leader."
Be sure to record enough information to describe each job action without getting overly detailed at this point. You will include more detail later in the safe job procedure.
Avoid making the breakdown of steps so detailed that it becomes unnecessarily long. On the other hand, don't make it so broad that it does not include basic steps.
Get input from other workers who have performed the same job.
Review the job steps with the employee to make sure you have not omitted something.
Point out that you are analyzing the task, not evaluating the employee's job performance.
Include the employees in all phases of the analysis--from reviewing the job steps and procedures to discussing hazards and solutions.
It may be helpful to photograph or videotape the worker performing the job.
The table below shows an example of the first three steps in the JHA. Notice that the two persons performing the task are identified.
|BASIC TASK STEP||HAZARDS - POSSIBLE INJURIES||PREVENTIVE MEASURES|
|1. Spotter: Spot position of trailer as it nears loading dock.|
|2. When the trailer is in position, turn engine off, set parking brake, and notify forklift operator.|
|3. Driver: Set chocks.|
|SAFE JOB PROCEDURE|