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Course 706 - Conducting a Job Hazard Analysis (JHA)

Safety guides and audits to make your job as a safety professional easier

Improve the JHA Process

Regularly analyze the JHA process.


Periodically reviewing your job hazard analysis ensures that it remains current and continues to help reduce workplace accidents and injuries. Even if the job has not changed, it is possible that during the review process you will identify hazards that were not identified in the initial analysis.

It is particularly important to review your job hazard analysis if an illness or injury occurs on a specific job. Based on the circumstances, you may determine that you need to change the job procedure to prevent similar incidents in the future. If an employee's failure to follow proper job procedures results in a "close call," discuss the situation with all employees who perform the job and remind them of proper procedures.

  • It may also be possible that the problem is with the procedure. Maybe it needs to be changed. Talk with employees about their reasons for the apparent unsafe behavior. You might be surprised to learn they have been "trapped" into doing the task that way.
  • On the other hand, discipline may be appropriate if the safety management system has not failed the employee (the employer is meeting all safety obligations).

Any time you revise a job hazard analysis, it is important to train all employees affected by the changes in the new job methods, procedures, or protective measures adopted.

1. What would be the best response by a supervisor if a worker, using proper Job Hazard Analysis procedures, has a "close call" incident?

a. Terminate the worker immediately
b. Review JHA procedures with workers and revise as needed
c. Remind all employees to use proper procedures
d. Tell the safety manager

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Consultants can be very helpful.

Hiring a Professional to Conduct JHA

If your employees are involved in many different or complex processes, you may need professional help conducting your job hazard analyses. Sources of help include your insurance company, the local fire department, and private consultants with safety and health expertise. Some state OSHA agencies may offer assistance through consultation services.

Even when you receive outside help, it is important that you and your employees remain involved in the process of identifying and correcting hazards because you are on the worksite every day and most likely to encounter these hazards. New circumstances and a recombination of existing circumstances may cause old hazards to reappear and new hazards to appear. In addition, you and your employees must be ready and able to implement whatever hazard elimination or control measures a professional consultant recommends.

2. You may need 3rd-party professional help conducting your job hazard analyses if _____.

a. employees are not trained to conduct JHAs
b. the company is large and profitable
c. JHAs involve analyzing task with many steps
d. employees are involved in many complex processes

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Tips to Improve the JHA

Nathan Crutchfield: JHA vs JSA

Ergonomics. To improve the JHAs and its related SJP, think about the "ergonomics" of the job. Find ways to further reduce lifting, lowering, pushing, pulling, carrying, throwing, holding, twisting, or tasks using force. A SJP should remove any unnecessary actions and prevent the need to do things more than once if possible. There should be as little heavy carrying as possible and also include rest breaks if needed. If feasible, provide mechanical aids such as hoists, adjustable workbenches, and hooks. Make sure tools and equipment are position so that they are in easy reach.

Subject Matter Experts (SME). A solid JHA improvement process will make good use of the experience and knowledge of workers and subject matter experts (SMEs) various safety and health specialties to review the tasks and identify new hazards. SMEs provide a level of involvement as experts in their field. They can effectively review the tasks and the hazards identified to determine the proper set of controls required. Workers and SMEs can also help improve the methods to communicate instructions or procedures.

Training. Any time you revise a job hazard analysis, it is important to train all employees affected by the changes in the new job methods, procedures, or protective measures adopted.

3. A solid JHA improvement process will make good use of _____.

a. competent persons (CPs)
b. subject matter experts (SMEs)
c. authorized safety trainers (ASTs)
d. safety committee (SC) members

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Take a Team Approach


To further improve the quality of your JHA program, you may want to establish a formal JHA Team.

The JHA Team membership might consist of:

  • the first line supervisor, or designee, of the affected area as Team Leader
  • non-exempt employees experienced in the job that the JHA will be conducted on. If this is a new type of task experienced employees will probably not be available.
  • additional subject matter expert resources as needed to evaluate the task, including, but not limited to the area safety engineer, industrial hygienist, safety manager, fire protection, emergency preparedness coordinator, or safety observer, etc.

4. Who is NOT likely to be a member of a job hazard analysis team?

a. First-line supervisors
b. Experienced non-exempt employees
c. Upper-level management
d. Subject matter experts (SME)

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Team Responsibilities

The JHA Team might be responsible for:

  • developing a JHA by defining the key steps of each job, identifying the potential hazards of each key step and recommending safe practices (e.g., engineering controls, administrative controls, etc.) to eliminate or reduce each hazard/exposure
  • conducting the JHA for the selected process or activity by discussing and completing each of the sections on the JHA form
  • recommending any changes required to facilitate personnel safety; including, but not limited to, specific procedures, policies, equipment, training, etc., that may be involved
  • providing appropriate managers, supervisors, and employees with a completed copy of the JHA

5. JHA team responsibilities include giving a copy of the JHA to _____.

a. OSHA representatives
b. all employees in affected departments
c. appropriate managers, supervisors, and employees
d. only affected employees

Check your Work

Read the material in each section to find the correct answer to each quiz question. After answering all the questions, click on the "Check Quiz Answers" button to grade your quiz and see your score. You will receive a message if you forgot to answer one of the questions. After clicking the button, the questions you missed will be listed below. You can correct any missed questions and check your answers again.

Final Exam
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