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Course 711 - Introduction to Ergonomics

Safety guides and audits to make your job as a safety professional easier

Defining Ergonomics



Webster's New World Dictionary (College Edition) defines ergonomics as "the study of the problems of people in adjusting to their environment; especially the science that seeks to adapt work or working conditions to suit the individual worker."

The word "ergonomics" is from Greek: :

  • "ergo" means "work,"
  • "nomics" means "laws pertaining to, or measure."
  • Ergonomics is "the laws pertaining to work, the measure of work."

Ergonomics may also be thought of as the science of fitting the job to the individual worker. When there is a mismatch between the physical requirements of the job and the physical capacity of the worker, musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) can result.

Read the material in each section to find the correct answers to each of the questions. After answering all questions, click the "Check Quiz Answers" button to see your score and a list of missed questions. To correct a question, return to the question, review the material, change your answer, and return to the last section page. Click the "Check Quiz Answers" again to recheck the results.

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1. Ergonomics is the science of fitting the job to _____.

a. the individual worker
b. the group of workers
c. job classifications
d. the gender of workers

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Ergonomics & Risk Factors

Ergonomic Risk Factor Areas.
Click to enlarge.

Ergonomics studies the various risk factors brought to a job. Listed below are three areas within which ergonomic risk factors exist.

  • Risk factors inherent in the worker
  • Risk factors inherent in the task
  • Risk factors inherent in the environment

Workers come in all shapes and sizes, each with unique attributes that present certain ergonomic risk factors to a given job. The task(s) of the job itself can present risk factors that increase the likelihood of an injury. Finally, the workplace environment, within which the worker and job exist, may also contain exposures to risk factors. We will cover each of these risk factor categories in this course.

Who is at risk?

That's a great question. Let's take a look at the factors that increase the risk of an injury. The risk for developing MSDs increases for workers who must:

  • repeat the same motion often throughout their workday;
  • do their work in an awkward position;
  • use a great deal of force to perform their jobs;
  • repeatedly lift heavy objects; or
  • face a combination of these risk factors.

The level of risk depends on how long a worker is exposed to these conditions, how often they are exposed, and the level of exposure.

2. Ergonomic risk factors are inherent in each of the following areas EXCEPT _____.

a. the worker
b. the system
c. the environment
d. the task

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Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs)

Ergonomics and MSDs Washington State L&I

When there is a mismatch between the physical requirements of the job and the physical capacity of the worker, work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), can result. MSDs affect the muscles, nerves, blood vessels, ligaments and tendons.

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) MSDs are the single largest category of workplace injuries and are responsible for almost 30% of all worker’s compensation costs. Workers in many different industries and occupations can be exposed to risk factors at work, such as:

  • lifting, lowering, pushing or pulling heavy loads;
  • frequent bending and reaching overhead; and
  • twisting when lifting, and working in awkward body postures.

Repetitive exposure to these known risk factors for MSDs increases a worker's risk of injury.

MSDs represent a wide range of disorders that can differ in severity from mild periodic symptoms to severe chronic and debilitating conditions. Below is a list of examples.

  • Carpal tunnel syndrome
  • Tendinitis
  • osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis
  • fibromyalgia
  • Rotator cuff injuries (affects the shoulder)
  • Epicondylitis (affects the elbow)
  • Trigger finger
  • Muscle strains and low back injuries

3. Workers are likely to develop musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) when they ________.

a. occasionally lift objects
b. work in an awkward position
c. reach for objects at shoulder level
d. participate in a stretching program

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Factors Contributing to MSDs

Multiple factors could contribute to MSDs performing this task.

Contributing factors are aspects of work tasks that can lead to fatigue, MSD symptoms and injuries, or other types of problems. These factors may be present in one or more of the tasks employees must perform to accomplish their jobs. The contributing factors you and your employees should be aware of include:

  • Awkward and static postures - assuming positions that place stress on the body, such as prolonged or repetitive reaching above shoulder height, kneeling, squatting, leaning over a counter, using a knife with wrists bent, or twisting the torso while lifting.
  • Repetitive motions - performing the same motion or series of motions continually or frequently for an extended period of time;
  • Forceful exertions - the amount of physical effort required to perform a task (such as heavy lifting, pushing, or pulling), handle merchandise, or maintain control of equipment or tools.
  • Pressure points and Contact stress - pressing the body or part of the body (such as the hand) against hard or sharp edges, or using the hand as a hammer.
  • Vibration - segmental affecting the hands and arms, and whole body vibration from standing or sitting in vibrating environments.

4. Each of the following are factors that contribute to MSD symptoms and injuries EXCEPT _____.

a. awkward positioning
b. vibration
c. continually performing different motions
d. forceful exertions

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Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs)

MSDs that happen because of work or made worse because of workplace conditions are called work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). Symptoms of WMSDs in the workplace include:

  • pain, swelling, numbness, and tingling;
  • reduced worker productivity;
  • lost time from work;
  • temporary or permanent disability;
  • inability to perform job tasks; and
  • because they are work-related they may be compensable.

Check out this short audio clip by Dan Clark of the that gives a good introduction to WMSDs.

5. Work-Related musculoskeletal disorders are nothing more than musculoskeletal disorders that are ________.

a. caused or affected by the local environment
b. dependent or modified by the work environment
c. changed or improved by the work environment
d. caused or made worse by the work environment

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BLS Chart - Click to enlarge.

Impact of WMSDs on Work

WMSDs are among the most prevalent work-related medical problems across the country. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), musculoskeletal disorders involving the back accounted for about 40 percent of all WMSDs.

Often MSDs can be prevented by simple and inexpensive changes in the workplace:

  • Adjusting the height of working surfaces, varying tasks for workers, and encouraging short rest breaks can reduce risks.
  • Reducing the size of items workers must lift or providing lifting equipment also may aid workers.
  • Specially designed equipment, such as curved knives for poultry processors, may help.

Medical costs and workers' compensation claims for serious MSDs may total $15,000 to $85,000 or more. It makes sense to give serious consideration to the risk factors in your workplace and the information in this course will help you do that.

6. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), 40% of all WMSDs involve injury to _____.

a. the leg
b. multiple body parts
c. the back
d. the shoulder

Check your Work

Read the material in each section to find the correct answer to each quiz question. After answering all the questions, click on the "Check Quiz Answers" button to grade your quiz and see your score. You will receive a message if you forgot to answer one of the questions. After clicking the button, the questions you missed will be listed below. You can correct any missed questions and check your answers again.


Ergonomics in the Workplace

Watch ergonomics expert Jon Cinkay from the Hospital for Special Surgery show you how to make your desk and office chair adapt to you and not the other way around. Photo: Adam Falk/The Wall Street Journal

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