Skip Navigation
Safety guides and audits to make your job as a safety professional easier

Confined Space Safety Basics

713entry

Introduction

In order to fully understand the information offered in this course, you must first understand the terms used. So, let's take a look at some important definitions for common confined space terms used by most industries and regulatory agencies.

What is a confined space?

That depends on where you're working. In the United States, a confined space is defined by OSHA as a space that meets the following three criteria:

  1. The space is large enough and configured such that an employee can bodily enter and perform work;
  2. The space has limited means of entry (access) and exit (egress), which means you need to use your hands or contort your body to enter the space; and
  3. The space is not designed for continuous employee occupancy.

In Canada, each province may have their own definition of a "confined space," and each of these definitions may be slightly different from OSHA's definition in the U.S. Generally, regulatory agencies in Canada define a confine as having the following three characteristics:

  1. It is a fully or partially enclosed space;
  2. It is neither designed nor constructed for continuous human occupancy; and
  3. It is a space in which atmospheric hazards may occur because of its construction, location or contents or because of work that is done in it.

Read the material in each section to find the correct answers to each of the questions. After answering all questions, click the "Check Quiz Answers" button to see your score and a list of missed questions. To correct a question, return to the question, review the material, change your answer, and return to the last section page. Click the "Check Quiz Answers" again to recheck the results.

Do not refresh these pages or you'll have to answer all questions again.

Note: Videos and exercises in our courses are for information only and not required to view. Final exam questions will not be derived from the videos. OSHAcademy is not responsible for video content.

1. A confined space must have limited means of entry (access) and exit (egress). How is "limited means of entry" defined?

a. You must use your hands or contort your body to enter/exit
b. You can only enter at a certain time
c. You must use stairs to enter or exit
d. You do not use a door for entry/exit

Next Section

cssamples
There are several different types of confined spaces
(Click to enlarge)

Definition Differences

  • In the United States, a confined space must be large enough for bodily entry. In Canada, the size of the space doesn't matter. Therefore, we may assume it must be large enough for part of the body, like the head, to enter. Actually workers have been killed in confined space only after sticking their heads through a hatch or lid. Workers have also been killed in rather shallow trenches. To have a fatal confined space accident, all it takes is a trench or ditch a couple of feet (or a meter) in depth, and a heavier-than-air hazardous atmosphere.
  • To be considered a confined space in the United States, the space must have limited access or egress. There is no such requirement in Canada. Examples of limited access are hatches or covers.
  • In both the U.S. and Canada, a confined space must not be designed for human/employee occupancy.
  • And finally, in Canada the space must have the potential for developing a hazardous atmosphere. In the United States, this requirement is not included in the definition.

In this course, we will focus on confined space entry as defined by OSHA in the USA.

Reasons for Entering Confined Spaces

Entering a confined space may be done for various reasons. It is done usually to perform a necessary function, such as inspection, repair, maintenance (cleaning or painting), or similar operations which would be an infrequent or irregular function of the total industrial activity.

Entry may also be made during new construction. One of the most difficult confined space entries to control is that of unauthorized entry, especially when there are large numbers of workers and trades involved, such as welders, painters, electricians, and safety monitors.

A final and most important reason for entry would be emergency rescue. This, and all other reasons for entry, must be well planned before initial entry is made and the hazards must be thoroughly reviewed.

2. Which type of confined space entry is listed as the most difficult to control?

a. Authorized entry
b. Unauthorized entry
c. Construction sites
d. Road construction

Next Section

Permit-Required Confined Spaces (PRCS)

By definition, a permit-required confined space is a space that meets the criteria for a confined space and has one or more of the following characteristics:

  1. It contains or has the potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere;
  2. It contains a material with the potential to engulf someone who enters the space;
  3. It has an internal configuration that might cause an entrant to be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or by a floor that slopes downward and tapers to a smaller cross section; or
  4. It contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazards.

See the Confined Space Entry Decision Flow Chart by clicking the appropriate tab at the top of this page to help you determine if your confined spaces need a permit.

cssamples
Are these confined spaces?
(Click to enlarge)

Examples of Confined Spaces that Could Become Permit Spaces

Most confined spaces are designed to hold substances such as liquids, gases, and loose materials, or to house equipment. They come in many sizes and shapes, though most can be classified in one of two ways: those with depth and open tops and those with narrow openings. Below are examples of each.

See the

  • Trenches
  • Pits
  • Ship compartments
  • Wells
  • Silos
  • Vats
  • Pipes
  • Hoppers
  • Tunnels
  • Bins
  • Tanks
  • Degreasers
  • Casings
  • Kettles
  • Sewers

Check out this short audio clip by Dan Clark of the theSafetyBrief.com that defines and discusses the characteristics of permit-required confined spaces.

3. Each of the following is one of the four criteria for a permit-required confined space (PRCS) EXCEPT _____.

a. it does or may contain a hazardous atmosphere
b. it contains material with the potential to engulf
c. it has outwardly converging walls
d. it contains recognized safety or health hazards

Next Section

Where Confined Spaces are Found

confinedspace1

Confined spaces are found not only in industrial settings but also in public places such as shopping malls and large public swimming pools. Waterfalls and water fountain displays used in malls for beautification may have pump vaults or valve pits that are seldom entered. Some swimming pool pumps are placed in vaults below ground. There have been reports of maintenance employees entering these areas and losing consciousness.

Take a look at this discussion that includes examples of where confined spaces are found in construction.

The general industry confined space standard does not address the unique characteristics of confined spaces in construction, therefore OSHA is creating a separate rule to protect employees from the hazards resulting from exposure to confined spaces in the construction industry.

4. According to OSHA, each of the following may be a confined space, EXCEPT _____.

a. a 55-gallon drum
b. a trench
c. a utility vault
d. a manhole

Next Section

Why Confined Spaces are Hazardous to Entrants

cssamples
Confined space hazards are usually present.
(Click to enlarge)

By their very nature, confined spaces can be hazardous. Below is a list of hazards:

  • Space configurations such as small openings and inwardly converging walls, which can trap an entrant, restrict easy entry and exit, or impede rescue.
  • Atmospheric hazards such as gasoline tank vapors, combined with limited ventilation. Such conditions can cause asphyxiation or explosion.
  • Physical hazards, such as unstable grain contained in silos, which can engulf a worker.
  • All other serious hazards associated with general industry, such as electrical equipment, moving machinery, falling objects, and wet or slippery surfaces.

Below is a list of potential hazards:

  • No ventilation (pits and vaults seldom opened).
  • Leaking chlorine gas (which is heavier than air) can accumulate in low-lying spaces.
  • Oxygen depletion, which can be caused by:
    • Rotting vegetation and decaying dead animals.
    • Corroding or rusting machinery.

Read these actual confined space accident summaries to learn more about the dangers of confined spaces.

5. Each of the following is a possible serious hazard within a confined space EXCEPT _____.

a. inwardly converging walls in a tank
b. an entry/exit that restricts entry
c. 21% oxygen level in a utility vault
d. moving machinery in the confined space

Next Section

What is Confined Space "Entry"?

cssamples
Confined space entry.
(Click to enlarge)

A confined space entry is considered to have occurred when any part of a person's body crosses the plane of an opening into the space. Each employer should ask these two questions at the onset of each project:

  1. Is confined space entry always necessary for this task?
  2. Is it possible to complete the task from the outside?

If possible, avoid entering a confined space. Every consideration should be given to completing the task from the outside.

Using Alternative Entry Procedures

Under certain conditions, you may use alternate procedures for worker entry into a permit space. For example, if you can demonstrate with monitoring and inspection data that the only hazard is an actual or potential hazardous atmosphere that can be made safe for entry using continuous forced air ventilation, you may be exempted from some entry requirements, such as permits and attendants.

However, even in these circumstances, you must test the internal atmosphere of the space for oxygen content, flammable gases and vapors, and the potential for toxic air contaminants before any employee enters it. You must also provide continuous ventilation and verify that the required measurements are performed before entry.

6. A confined space entry is considered to have occurred when ________ crosses the plane of an opening into the space.

a. a person's entire body
b. any part of a person's body
c. a person's hand
d. a person's foot

Check your Work

Read the material in each section to find the correct answer to each quiz question. After answering all the questions, click on the "Check Quiz Answers" button to grade your quiz and see your score. You will receive a message if you forgot to answer one of the questions. After clicking the button, the questions you missed will be listed below. You can correct any missed questions and check your answers again.

Flow Chart

Flow Chart

flowchart
Sample Flow Chart
(Click to enlarge)

Video

Permit-Required Confined Spaces

Note: All videos and exercises in all of our courses are information only and not required to view. Final exam questions do not come from the videos. OSHAcademy is not responsible for video content.

Frank Quarato from the Center For Safety And Environmental Management talks about 29 CFR 1910.146 Permit Required Confined Space.

Next Module

OSHAcademy Ultimate Guide Banner Ad