A chain of command links one person with overall responsibility for managing an emergency to others who are responsible for carrying out specific emergency-response tasks. A chain of command establishes who is in charge and ensures that everyone in the chain responds to emergencies in an organized way.
At the top of the chain is the trained emergency evacuation coordinator who has overall responsibility for managing emergencies. Just below the emergency evacuation coordinator are the volunteer evacuation wardens.
It is common practice to select a responsible individual to lead and coordinate your emergency plan and evacuation. The highest-ranking responder will assume the incident command role and will work with the onsite emergency coordinator, but will be responsible for directing all response activities.
When emergency officials, such as the local fire department, respond to and emergency at your workplace, they will assume responsibility for the safety of building occupants and have the authority to make decisions regarding evacuation and whatever other actions are necessary to protect life and property.
It is critical that employees know who the coordinator is and understand that this person has the authority to make decisions during emergencies. The coordinator should be responsible for assessing the situation to determine whether an emergency exists requiring activation of the emergency procedures, overseeing emergency procedures, notifying and coordinating with outside emergency services, and directing shutdown of utilities or plant operations if necessary.
When drafting your emergency action plan, you may wish to select a responsible individual to lead and coordinate your emergency plan and evacuation. It is critical that employees know who the coordinator is and understand that person has the authority to make decisions during emergencies.
The coordinator should be responsible for the following:
You also may find it beneficial to coordinate the action plan with other employers when several employers share the worksite, although OSHA standards do not specifically require this.
In addition to a coordinator, you may want to designate evacuation wardens to help move employees from danger to safe areas during an emergency. Generally, one warden for every 20 employees should be adequate, and the appropriate number of wardens should be available at all times during working hours.
Employees designated to assist in emergency evacuation procedures should be trained in the complete workplace layout and various alternative escape routes. All employees and those designated to assist in emergencies should be made aware of employees with special needs who may require extra assistance, how to use the buddy system, and hazardous areas to avoid during an emergency evacuation.
Before implementing the emergency action plan, the employer must designate and train enough people to assist in the safe and orderly emergency evacuation of employees. Employers should review the plan with each employee when the initial plan is developed and when each employee is initially assigned to the job. Employers should review the plan with each employee when his/her actions or responsibilities under the plan change or when the plan changes.
Educate your employees about the types of emergencies that may occur and train them in the proper course of action. The size of your workplace and workforce, processes used, materials handled, and the availability of onsite or outside resources will determine your training requirements.
Be sure all employees understand the function and elements of your emergency action plan, including types of potential emergencies, reporting procedures, alarm systems, evacuation plans, and shutdown procedures. Discuss any special hazards you may have onsite such as flammable materials, toxic chemicals, radioactive sources, or water-reactive substances.
Effective EAP training should include hands-on practice and drills. Effective plans often call for retraining employees annually and include a requirement to conduct drills in which employees can practice evacuating their workplace and gathering in the assembly area.
Instruct your employees about the types of specific emergencies that may occur and train them in the proper course of action. The size of your workplace and workforce, processes used, materials handled, and the availability of onsite or outside resources will determine your training requirements.
General training for your employees should also address the following:
If training is not reinforced, it will be forgotten. Consider retraining employees annually.
Effective plans often call for retraining employees at least annually and include drills in which employees can practice evacuating their workplace and gathering in the assembly area. It is a good idea to hold practice drills as often as necessary to keep employees prepared. Include outside resources such as fire and police departments when possible. After each drill, gather management and employees to evaluate the effectiveness of the drill. Identify the strengths and weaknesses of your plan and work to improve it.
You also may want to train your employees in first-aid procedures, including protection against bloodborne pathogens; respiratory protection, including use of an escape-only respirator; and methods for preventing unauthorized access to the site.