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Education and Training

Introduction

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Identifying and solving workplace MSD problems require some level of ergonomic knowledge and skills. Recognizing and filling different training needs is an important step in building an effective program.

For ergonomics, the overall goal of training is to enable managers, supervisors, and employees to identify aspects of job tasks that may increase a worker's risk of developing MSDs, recognize the signs and symptoms of the disorders, and participate in the development of strategies to control or prevent them.

The educational component of ergonomics training ensures employees are well informed about ergonomic hazards so they can actively participate in identifying and controlling exposures. To be "well informed," includes knowing why using ergonomically safe procedures are important.

Employers may opt to have outside experts conduct ergonomics education and training. If so, the outside instructors should first become familiar with company operations as well as relevant policies and practices before starting to present the training. Tailoring the instruction to address specific concerns and interests of the worker groups can enhance learning.

1. The overall goals of ergonomics training include all of the following EXCEPT _____.

a. identification of job aspects that increase risk
b. recognition of signs and symptoms of MSDs
c. identifying common sense ergonomics theories
d. participation in control and prevention strategies

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training

Ergonomics Awareness Training

The objectives for ergonomics awareness training are as follows:

  • Recognize workplace risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders and understand general methods for controlling them.
  • Identify the signs and symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders that may result from exposure to such risk factors and be familiar with the company's health care procedures.
  • Know the process the employer is using to address and control risk factors, the employee's role in the process, and ways employees can actively participate.
  • Know the procedures for reporting risk factors and musculoskeletal disorders, including the names of designated persons who should receive the reports.

2. Employers should provide training to employees regarding _____ and _____ of MSDs.

a. signs and symptoms, reporting
b. self-treating, reporting
c. reporting, rewarding
d. identification, self-treating

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Training in Job Analyses and Control Measures

The objectives for training in job analyses and control measures are as follows:

  • Demonstrate the way to do a job analysis for identifying risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders
  • Select ways to implement and evaluate control measures

Training in Problem Solving

The objectives for training in problem solving are as follows:

  • Identify the departments, areas, and jobs with risk factors through a review of company reports, records, walk-through observations, and special surveys.
  • Identify tools and techniques that can be used to conduct job analyses and serve as a basis for recommendations.
  • Develop skills in team building, consensus development, and problem solving.
  • Recommend ways to control ergonomic hazards based on job analyses and pooling ideas from employees, management, and other affected and interested parties.

3. The objectives for training in problem solving include each of the following EXCEPT _____.

a. identifying departments, areas and jobs with risk factors
b. identifying job analysis tools and techniques
c. developing skills in team building and problem solving
d. recognizing proper discipline for non-compliance

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Special Considerations and Precautions

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Training objectives are not intended to have workers, supervisors, or managers diagnose or treat MSDs. Rather, the purpose is to instill an understanding of what type of health problems may be work related and when to refer employees for medical evaluation. The training should include what is known about work and non-work causes of musculoskeletal disorders and the current limitations of scientific knowledge.

Training should be understandable to the target audience. Training materials used should consider the participants educational levels, literacy abilities, and language skills. This may mean, for example, providing materials, instruction, or assistance in Spanish rather than English.

Open and frank interactions between trainers and trainees, especially those in affected jobs, are especially important. Employees know their own jobs better than anyone else and often are the source of good ideas for ways to improve them. At a minimum, employees must be given an opportunity to discuss ergonomic problems in their jobs as they see them and engage in relevant problem-solving exercises during the training.

4. Open and frank interactions between trainers and trainees, especially those in affected jobs, are especially important because _____.

a. employees generally lack common sense
b. employees need to know the costs of ergonomic interventions
c. employees know their own jobs and often are the source of good ideas
d. employees are accountable for their behaviors and need to understand the policy

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Model Training Strategy

Step 1 - Introduction: The instructor tells the trainee about the training. At this time, the instructor emphasizes the importance of the procedure to the success of the production/service goals, invites questions, and emphasizes accountability.

Step 2 - Instructor show and tell: The instructor demonstrates the process. The instructor first explains and demonstrates safe work procedures associated with the task. In this step the trainee becomes familiar with each work practice and why it is important.

Step 3 - Instructor show and ask: The trainee tells the instructor how to do the procedure while the instructor does it. This step is actually optional, but it's important to include this step if injury is possible. There is an opportunity for the instructor to discover whether there were any misunderstandings, but protects the trainee because the instructor still performs the procedure.

Step 4 - Trainee tell and show: The trainee explains and accomplishes the procedure. The trainee carries out the procedure but remains protected because the he or she explains the process before actually performing the procedure.

Step 5 - Conclusion: The instructor recognizes accomplishment. The instructor also reemphasizes the importance of the procedure, and how it fits into the overall process. The instructor also reviews the natural consequences (the injury/illness) and system consequences (reward/discipline) related to performance.

Step 6 - Document: The trainee, instructor, and supervisor certify the training. The trainee certifies the training was accomplished, questions were answered, opportunities were provided to practice, accountabilities are understood, and the student intends to comply. The instructor certifies that the trainee has demonstrated adequate knowledge and skills. The supervisor certifies that the trainee has adequate ability to use equipment or complete the procedure on the job.

5. Adequate documentation of ergonomics training should include certification by _____.

a. trainees and supervisors
b. each trainee, the instructor, and the supervisor
c. all students
d. the instructor

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Document Training

If it isn't in writing...it didn't happen

OSHA requires that training be documented and, in some cases, certified. You can tell a compliance officer training occurred until your ears turn blue, but if it isn't documented, you may be hard pressed to adequately demonstrate that it actually occurred. So, as a last word, be sure you document that safety training took place. In your documentation both worker and trainer should certify at least:

  • Worker name, date, subject
  • The worker demonstrated safe procedures to standard
  • All questions were answered to worker's satisfaction
  • Worker will comply with safe procedures as a condition of employment

Take a look at this sample training certification.

There you have it. Only one more review quiz. Answer each question as best you can.

6. What will OSHA check to verify safety training has been conducted?

a. instructor interviews
b. employee affirmations
c. assurance by the employer
d. written documentation

Check your Work

Read the material in each section to find the correct answer to each quiz question. After answering all the questions, click on the "Check Quiz Answers" button to grade your quiz and see your score. You will receive a message if you forgot to answer one of the questions. After clicking the button, the questions you missed will be listed below. You can correct any missed questions and check your answers again.

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