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Safety guides and audits to make your job as a safety professional easier



OK, now you've completed preparing for the training session, greeted students as they arrived, and it's time to start training. What's next? Let's first look at the general sequence of activities in most training activities.

The training presentation generally follows the sequence below.

  1. Thank them for coming!
  2. Introduction: "getting around," and emergency procedures.
  3. Preview: Tell them what you're going to tell them.
  4. Benefits: Tell them why it's important.
  5. Main ideas:Tell them
  6. Activity: Have them do something
  7. Benefits: Tell them why it's important.
  8. Review: Tell them what you told them
  9. Test: Have students take a written test or demonstrate skills.
  10. Evaluate: It's not over 'til the paperwork is done. Ask them to complete a student evaluation.
  11. Thank them for coming!

If you get that sequence down and follow it regularly, you are much more likely to be successful every time you train.

1. Which of the following four trainer activities is completed before presenting the main ideas in a training session?

a. Test: Have students take a written test or demonstrate skills
b. Review: Tell them what you told them
c. Preview: Tell them what you're going to tell them
d. Activity: Have them do something

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There are several things you can do to make the introductions interesting.

There are several things you can do to make the introductions interesting. Here are a few ideas:

  • Thank the audience for coming: This a "must do" idea. You know, "you get what you give." What does that mean? In the context of training, if you welcome your audience and come across as being thankful for their attendance, they will be more likely to return those same thoughts and feelings back to you.
  • Establish your credibility: Give your experience, share your interest in the materials being presented. Giving your audience a summary of your experience, education, etc., is fine as long as you don't turn it into a love-me bragging session. Your audience won't appreciate that.
  • Break the ice: You might also ask your students to introduce themselves at this time. An introductory "icebreaker" exercise that works great is to ask each student to tell everyone something about themselves, like their favorite sports team, vacation spot, or animal. That little exercise can be quite fun!
  • Present the agenda: "Tell them what your going to tell them!" Let your students know why the topic is important and how it can impact their job and life.
  • Determine expectations from the audience: During introductions you can ask students to tell you what they expect to get out of the training. Be ready for some surprise responses though.
  • OK... "Break time!": Shorter 5-minute breaks every hour work well. You will know when you've gone too long without a break when students start leaving the training room. Remember, if you tell them a 5-minute break, they take 10 minutes, so keep the reigns tight on breaks.Try not to present more than 1.5 hours without a break.
  • Give a time frame for your presentation: Let everyone know when the training will be over, and NEVER run over. Your students have a life too, and a schedule they have to keep.
  • Tell the audience what you hope they will learn (what they'll know and be able to do) by the end of your presentation. This goes hand-in-hand with summarizing the various topics that will be presented.
  • Don't be a "know-it-all": Do not come across as arrogant and having all the answers. Confess that you probably don't know all the answers. You really don't need to be the "fountain of all knowledge" to be an effective trainer. Trainers who believe they have to be perfect are never at ease, and usually come across with less confidence. Admitting that you don't have all the answers takes pressure off yourself and will place some of the responsibility on the audience.
  • Encourage everyone to participate with their own ideas, opinions, beliefs, and feelings. Again, we can apply the "get what you give" principle here by stating that the student is only going to get out of the training, what he or she puts into it. I also like to divide students into groups. I do this automatically by setting up the classroom tables with 4-6 chairs in a grand "horseshoe" formation.
  • Once you have gained attention, transition into the body of your presentation. "What are your questions before we start?" After you have answered questions, get going!

2. What is the best way to improve introductions to safety training?

a. Always thank everyone for coming
b. Tell a joke
c. Act like you know-it-all
d. Don't spend time on your background

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There are many ways to have effective presentation skills.

Sharpening your Presentation

The key to effective presentation is being able to adapt your natural presentation style so that it best fits the needs/wants of the audience. Since you will be training adults, let's take a look at some tips on effective presentation skills.

  1. Don't claim to be the fount of all knowledge. If you do, someone in the audience will try to prove you wrong. Let your students know that you're not the "all knowing wise one," and always express appreciation for input from my students. This also helps take some of the pressure off you to actually know it all.
  2. Be Entertaining: Your presentation should be informative and entertaining.
  3. Slow Down and smell the roses: When speakers are nervous and inexperienced, they tend to talk way to fast. Consciously slow your speech down and add pauses for emphasis.
  4. Eye Contact: Make eye contact with each student from time to time. Don't get into the trap of looking at only one student while neglecting everyone else. You don't want students feeling left out of the conversation.

3. The key to effective presentations is in being able to _____.

a. use humor frequently
b. adapt your natural presentation style
c. stand behind the podium
d. never admit you are wrong

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Don't continually keep your arms folded or down at your side.

Sharpening your Presentation (Continued)

  1. Don't read from the slides: It's more interesting if you know your presentation without cues. Reading tells your students you don't really understand your material, a huge blow to your credibility.
  2. Tell stories. I'm sure you've got some good stories to tell. You can also ask the class if they have stories that illustrate or give a real-life application of the topic. We consider story-telling to be the most effective technique to make get involvement and make training more interesting.
  3. Project your voice: You need to be heard. Projecting your voice doesn't require yelling, let your voice resonate in your lungs rather than in the throat to produce a clearer sound. Speak to the person in the back of the room.
  4. Use natural gestures: Don't try to plan your gestures because more often than not, it looks planned, and can actually be quite amusing to students. Because planned gestures don't match your other involuntary body cues, they look false. Don't continually keep your arms folded or down at your side.
  5. Buy some time: If you don't know the answer, ask if anyone in the class knows. You'll be surprised how much experience and knowledge your audience has. If someone knows the answer be gracious and thank them. - You can use statements like, "that's a really good question," or "I'm glad you asked me that," to buy yourself a few moments to organize your response. Will the other people in the audience know you are using these filler sentences to reorder your thoughts? Probably not. And even if they do, it still makes the presentation more smooth than um's and ah's littering your answer.

4. Which of the following techniques is considered best in getting student involvement and making training interesting?

a. Using gestures
b. Lecturing
c. Short videos
d. Telling stories

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During your presentation, remember to pause every once in awhile.

Sharpening your Presentation (Continued)

  1. Pause from time to time: A well-placed pause can help generate more interest. Pauses help to emphasize important points.
  2. Don't use non-lexical utterances: Have you ever heard someone constantly use grunts or fillers like "um," "ah," "like," "you know," or "stuff like that," during pauses? If you do this habitually while presenting, work hard to stop. A good technique to help you stop is to record yourself speaking during a training session. Hearing yourself use fillers, as others do, will help you stop quickly.
  3. Repetitive words: avoid repetitive use of words like "actually," "additionally," "therefore," and "technically."
  4. Get practice: The first time you present a topic should not be the first time you have practiced the presentation or at least gone over the material in your head. Don't tell yourself you don't need to practice. Whether you talk out loud or visualize the presentation in your head, you're building that all-important "mental script" that is so necessary.
  5. Know when to apologize: Apologize only when you've actually said or done something wrong. Don't apologize for being nervous or lack of preparation. Most students won't detect your anxiety, so don't draw attention to it. Remember, appropriate apologies will increase your credibility.
  6. Have fun - enjoy the training: Tell yourself you're going to have fun, you like the students, and the session is going to be successful. Positive self-talk like that will go a long way in helping you present with the proper attitude.

5. When training a new subject, never tell yourself _____.

a. you're going to have fun
b. you don't need practice
c. you like to present training
d. you like the students

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It is important to preview what's on the agenda for your participants.

Tips for Training Adults

  • Preview what's on the agenda. Giving adult learners an advanced organizer, like workshop goals or objectives, helps them to retain information.
  • Where's the beef!. Show them the benefits of the training. Emphasize WIIFM (What's In It For Me).
  • Understand these three important principles of motivation:
    1. YOU can NOT motivate people;
    2. All people are motivated; and
    3. People do things for their own reasons, not yours

    The Five Ways to Squelch Motivation

    1. The absolute worse thing you can do is to ignore a student's question.
    2. Get participants in a passive mood and keep them there.
    3. Assume class participants will apply what is taught.
    4. Be quick to criticize student thoughts, ideas, and opinions.
    5. Make participants feel stupid for asking questions in class.

6. What is the absolute worst thing you can do, as a trainer, to squelch a student's motivation to participate?

a. Ignore the student's question
b. Interrupt the student before the question is finished
c. Tell the student you don't know the answer
d. Answer the student's question with a question

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More Tips for Training Adults (Continued)

  • Tell them one thing at a time. Adults are "linear." They like to be fed information, one piece at a time.
  • Give them time to take notes. They should not have to write and/or draw something while you want them to listen. If they must write while you're talking, they're probably missing or losing much of what you want them to hear.
  • Give them time to reflect or think. Give them a pause once in a while. Group activities are great for helping students think about the practical application of topics.
  • Avoid distractions in the front of the room. Don't place a lot of "stuff" up front, especially if it's interesting to look at. Keep it to the side and present it to the class only when needed.
  • Flip that paper. Flip charts should be left on a blank page when not being used.
  • Announcements, announcements, ANNOUNCEMENTS! Once announced, the days agenda should be posted in the back of the room.
  • Bring it home. Apply the learning to something they can relate to. You can do that, or you can ask students to help by giving examples.
    • Adults do not effectively learn by simply being told. They must have a chance to digest and understand how they can apply what they're being taught to the job.
    • Adults seek learning to cope with change or problems, because learning is not usually considered its own reward.
    • Information more easily enters the long-term memory when it is linked to old memories or can be related to something the learner has experienced.
    • Make certain the program material is actually needed by the participants. Give them information that they can apply in real-life situations.

7. Which of the following is an important adult learning principle?

a. Adults do not want to be given a reason
b. Adults want information they can apply
c. Adults prefer information in parallel
d. Adults don't like to have old memories surface

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The adult's short-term memory is linear, so training works best if you use lists.

Tips for Training Adults (Continued)

  • Give them a list. The adult's short-term memory is linear, so training works best if you use lists. Below is an example of a list you might use in an "Effective Recognition" training presentation. Lists like this are more interesting, especially since the list is unique with all items starting with the letter "S".
    1. Soon: Recognize as soon as possible after the behavior.
    2. Spontaneous: No need to plan it, just do it!
    3. Simple: A handshake, time off, or lunch work!
    4. Selection: Let them choose tangible rewards.
    5. Significant: Should be important to the receiver.
    6. Sincere: To touch the heart, recognition must come from the heart.
  • Use acronyms: STARS = Supervision, Training, Accountability, Resources, and Support.
  • Let them know what's important: Say something like, "This is important," or "This is a key concept".
  • Surprise them: The mind pays more attention to what's novel than what's ordinary. Use the 80% predictable/20% unpredictable rule here.
  • Involve them: Give participants the opportunity to share information and points of view during the training program. Invite them to be creative by developing lists, acronyms, and exercises. Get them involved in solving problems.

8. Which of the following training strategies is LEAST likely going to help adults learn?

a. Present only expected or predictable information
b. Use acronyms to help students remember a list
c. Involve students to get their points of view on topics
d. Tell students what is important to remember

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Using Visual Aids (VA)

About 65% of adults are primarily visual learners. Good visual aids can help trainers more effectively illustrate key concepts to increase understanding. Here's a few tips for training visual learners:

  1. Let your visuals help your presentation, not be your presentation
  2. Present visuals only when you are ready to use them
  3. Put visuals away when you're finished with them
  4. Rehearse with your visuals
  5. Test all audio-visual equipment before using it
  6. Avoid getting between your visuals and your participants (Use a laser pointer!)
  7. Write on flipcharts and white-boards
  8. Use assorted color transparencies to add interest and variety
  9. Use a pointer of some kind for finding important items on the screen
  10. Avoid moving the audio-visual equipment while you're using it
  11. Be careful not to use too much animation on computer slides

9. Most adults are primarily ______ learners.

a. auditory
b. integrated
c. visual
d. avid

Check your Work

Read the material in each section to find the correct answer to each quiz question. After answering all the questions, click on the "Check Quiz Answers" button to grade your quiz and see your score. You will receive a message if you forgot to answer one of the questions. After clicking the button, the questions you missed will be listed below. You can correct any missed questions and check your answers again.

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Death by PowerPoint 2012 by Don McMillan

Newly edited and improved version of Don's classic bit "Life After Death by PowerPoint".

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