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Safety guides and audits to make your job as a safety professional easier
Biohazard - Use Universal Precautions Sign.
It is important to use universal precautions whenever there is a potential for exposure to bloodborne pathogens or other potentially infectious materials.

Exposure Control Methods

Methods To Control The Risk Of Exposure

The recommended infection-control concept called "Universal Precautions" advocates everyone's blood and body fluids be considered potentially infectious. This eliminates the difficulty in determining risk individually. Remember, although some bodily fluids have not been documented to transmit pathogens, it is sometimes impossible to tell if blood or another potentially infectious fluid is present.

Methods To Control The Risk Of Exposure (Continued)

The strategies to eliminate or reduce injuries due to exposure to bloodborne pathogens include two basic strategies: changing hazards and changing behaviors.

SHARPS Container
A sharps container is a good example of an engineering control.
  1. Elimination. Remove the hazard.
  2. Substitution. Replace to reduce the hazard.
  3. Engineering Controls. Design to isolate the hazard.
  4. Administrative Controls. Develop programs to reduce exposure.
  5. Work Practice Controls. Develop safe methods to reduce exposure.
  6. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Set up a personal barrier to reduce exposure.

Elimination and substitution controls may be impractical hazard control methods to minimize exposure to bloodborne pathogens. therefore, engineering, work practice, and PPE controls are generally the most widely used methods to protect healthcare employees from exposure.

Engineering Controls

Engineering controls minimize exposure in the workplace either by designing equipment to isolate the hazard, such as:

  • sharps container for needles,
  • splash guards,
  • red bags for contaminated materials, and
  • mechanical pipetting devices.

Engineering controls focus on the design of equipment to minimize exposure. The Sharps container for needles is a good example of an engineering control that is widely used. Healthcare employers need to examine and maintain or replace engineering controls on a regularly scheduled basis.

Work Practice Controls

Gloved hand providing first aid for a cut finger.
Always use PPE when providing first aid care.

Work practice controls focus on the way tasks are performed. For example, using disposable gloves when performing emergency care is considered a work practice control. Another example of work practice controls is to perform all actions involving potentially infectious material in a way as to minimize splattering, splashing, and spraying. Proper handling and disposal of needles or sharps, contaminated bandages, gauze, or linens is also essential.

Work practice controls focus on how tasks are performed to minimize exposure.

Safe work practices include eliminating eating, drinking, smoking, applying make-up or lip balm, or handling contact lenses in locations with potentially infectious material. In healthcare facilities, employees are prohibited from wearing artificial nails. Food and drink must not be kept in a refrigerator, freezer, shelf, or in the general area of where blood or other potentially infectious materials are kept.

Hand washing after an exposure can reduce your risk of infection.

Wash your hands!

Hand washing after an exposure can reduce your risk of infection.

Your employer must provide readily accessible hand-washing facilities or antiseptic hand cleanser or wipes if hand-washing facilities are not available. Do the following to reduce your risk of infection resulting from an exposure.

  • Perform hand washing immediately after any exposure, even if you were wearing gloves.
  • Vigorous scrubbing with soap or alcohol-based foam or gel and warm water is considered the most effective technique.

Prohibited Practices

Practices that are completely prohibited in the workplace include: bending, recapping, and removing contaminated needles, shearing or breaking needles, and mouth pipetting or suctioning of potentially infectious material.

These practices significantly increase the risk of exposure. As a result, they should never be performed by employees.

hand gel
Antiseptic hand gel is only acceptable at worksites where soap and running water are not feasible.


Antiseptic hand cleaner in conjunction with clean cloth/paper towels or antiseptic towelettes are examples of acceptable alternatives to running water.

However, when these types of alternatives are used, employees must wash their hands (or other affected areas) with soap and running water as soon as feasible.

This alternative would only be acceptable at worksites where soap and running water are not feasible.


Dr. Kramer owns and operates a small dental clinic in San Francisco, CA. As part of her exposure control plan, she requires her employees to wash their hands before and after working with any patients. She also requires new gloves be used with every patient.

Is this an example of engineering controls or work practice controls?

Work practice controls.

Dr. Kramer is requiring her employees to do something to reduce the risk of occupational exposure. Work practice controls focus on the actions taken to minimize exposure.


Before beginning this quiz, we highly recommend you review the module material. This quiz is designed to allow you to self-check your comprehension of the module content, but only focuses on key concepts and ideas.

Read each question carefully. Select the best answer, even if more than one answer seems possible. When done, click on the "Check Your Answers" button. If you do not answer all the questions, you will receive an error message.

Good luck!

1. The recommended infection-control concept called "Universal Precautions" advocates everyone's blood and body fluids be considered _______.

2. Two widely used control strategies to eliminate or minimize the transmission of bloodborne diseases in the workplace are _______.

3. Which of the following are work practice controls?

4. After an exposure, you should immediately _____ and _____.

5. When exposed to bloodborne pathogens, antiseptic hand cleaner in conjunction with clean cloth/paper towels is only an acceptable alternative to washing your hands when soap and running water are not accessible.

Have a great day!

Important! You will receive an "error" message unless all questions are answered.