OSHA's 1910.1200, Hazard Communication standard is also called the HazCom Standard. It requires the classification of potential hazards of chemicals, and communicating information concerning hazards and appropriate protective measures to employees, The standard includes provisions for:
The standard also requires manufacturers and importers of hazardous chemicals to provide Safety Data Sheets to users of the chemicals describing potential hazards and other information. They must also attach hazard warning labels to containers of the chemicals. Employers must make SDSs available to workers. They must also train their workers in the hazards caused by the chemicals workers are exposed to and the appropriate protective measures that must be used when handling the chemicals.
For additional training on this topic, be sure to check out OSHAcademy course 705 Hazard Communication Program.
OSHA's 1910.1030, Bloodborne Pathogens Standard requires employers to protect workers from infection with human bloodborne pathogens in the workplace. The standard covers all workers with "reasonably anticipated" exposure to blood or other potentially infectious materials (OPIM).
It requires that information and training be provided:
The Bloodborne Pathogens standard also requires advance information and training for all workers in research laboratories who handle human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or hepatitis B virus (HBV).
The employer must develop a written exposure control plan (ECP) to provide a safe and healthy work environment and is allowed some flexibility in accomplishing this goal. Among other things, the ECP requires employers to:
Although the OSHA standard only applies to bloodborne pathogens, the protective measures in the standard (e.g., ECP, engineering and work practice controls, administrative controls, PPE, housekeeping, training, post-exposure medical follow-up) are the same measures for effectively controlling exposure to other biological agents.
For additional training on bloodborne pathogens safety, take Course 655 Bloodborne Pathogens in the Workplace and Course 755 Bloodborne Pathogens Program Management.
The OSHA 1910.132 standard requires requires employers to provide and pay for PPE and ensure that it is used wherever hazards are encountered in a manner capable of causing injury or impairment in the function of any part of the body through absorption, inhalation or physical contact. The types of hazards covered include:
In order to determine whether and what PPE is needed, the employer must assess the workplace to determine if hazards are present, or are likely to be present, which necessitate the use of PPE. Based on that assessment, the employer must select appropriate PPE that will protect the affected worker from the hazards and select PPE that properly fits each affected employee.
Employers must provide training for workers required to use PPE that addresses the following topics:
Although it's not required by OSHA, it's important to discuss "why" it is important to use specific PPE by emphasizing the consequences of improper use. Affected employees must also demonstrate an understanding of the training and ability to properly use specific PPE.
OSHA's 1910.133, Eye and face Protection Standard requires employers to ensure that each affected worker uses appropriate eye or face protection when exposed to eye or face hazards from flying particles, molten metal, liquid chemicals, acids or caustic liquids, chemical gases or vapors, or potentially injurious light radiation.
OSHA's 1910.134, Respiratory Protection Standard requires that a respirator be provided to each worker when such equipment is necessary to protect the health of such individual. The employer must provide respirators that are appropriate and suitable for the purpose intended. The employer is responsible for establishing and maintaining a respiratory protection program that includes the following:
OSHA's 1910.138, Hand protection standard requires employers to select and ensure that workers use appropriate hand protection when their hands are exposed to hazards such as:
Employers must base the selection of appropriate hand protection on an evaluation of the performance characteristics of the hand protection relative to the task(s) to be performed, conditions present, duration of use, and the hazards and potential hazards identified.
OSHA's 1910.147, The control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout) Standard establishes basic requirements for locking and/or tagging out equipment while installation, maintenance, testing, repair, or construction operations are in progress. The primary purpose of the standard is to protect workers from the unexpected energization or startup of machines or equipment, or release of stored energy. The procedures apply to the shutdown of all potential energy sources associated with machines or equipment, including pressures, flows of fluids and gases, electrical power, and radiation.
OSHA's 1910.136, Foot Protection Standard requires the employer to ensure each affected employee uses protective footwear. Foot protection should:
Caution should be used when wearing fabric shoes because they readily absorb chemical substances. Be sure to remove footwear immediately if chemicals spill on fabric shoes.
The following are recommended types of footwear: