There are many different types of hazards in the lab. Hazards are generally categorized into two types: 1) hazardous conditions and 2) unsafe work practices/behaviors.
To combat these hazardous conditions and unsafe work practices, control strategies, called the "Hierarchy of Controls," have been developed. Traditionally, a hierarchy of strategies to control hazards has been used to implement feasible and effective controls. In our training, we encourage the use of the "Hierarchy of Controls" (HOC) described within the ANSI/ASSP Z10-2012, Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems.
The hierarchy of controls prioritizes intervention strategies based on the premise that the best way to control a hazard is to systematically remove it from the workplace, rather than relying on workers to reduce their exposure. The types of measures that may be used to protect laboratory workers, prioritized from the most effective to least effective, are:
The idea behind this hierarchy is that the control methods at the top of the list are potentially more effective and protective than those at the bottom.
Following the hierarchy normally leads to the implementation of inherently safer systems, ones where the risk of illness or injury have been substantially reduced. Let's take a closer look at the hierarchy of control strategies.
Elimination and substitution, while most effective at reducing hazards, also tend to be the most difficult to implement in an existing process. If the process is still at the design or development stage, elimination and substitution of hazards may be inexpensive and simple to implement. For an existing process, major changes in equipment and procedures may be required to eliminate or substitute for a hazard.
These strategies are considered first because they have the potential of completely eliminating the hazard, thus greatly reducing the probability of an accident. Redesigning or replacing equipment or machinery may be expensive, but remember the average direct and indirect cost of a lost work time injury is over $39,000 and more than a million dollars to close a fatality claim.
Some examples of these two strategies include:
These controls focus on eliminating or reducing the actual source of the hazard, unlike other control strategies that generally focus on employee exposure to the hazard. The basic concept behind engineering controls is that, to the extent feasible, the work environment and the job itself should be designed to eliminate hazards or reduce exposure to hazards. While this approach is called engineering controls, it does not necessarily mean that an engineer is required to design the control.
Although hazardous conditions directly account for only about 3% of all workplace injuries, top priority should be given to eliminating them. If elimination or substitution is not possible, OSHA law requires employers to attempt to remove hazards through the use of feasible engineering controls because they also have the potential to totally eliminate hazards in the lab.
Engineering controls do not necessarily have to be expensive or complicated. They can be quite simple in some cases. Engineering controls are based on the following broad strategies:
When you cannot remove a hazard and cannot replace it with a less hazardous alternative, the next best control in the laboratory is enclosure. Enclosing a hazard usually means that there is no hazard exposure to workers during normal operations. There still will be potential exposure to workers during maintenance operations or if the enclosure system breaks down. For those situations, additional controls such as safe work practices or personal protective equipment (PPE) may be necessary to control exposure.
Some examples of enclosure designs are:
When the potential hazard cannot be removed, replaced, or enclosed, the next best approach is a barrier to exposure or, in the case of air contaminants, local exhaust ventilation to remove the contaminant from the workplace. This engineered control involves potential exposure to the worker even in normal operations. Consequently, it should be used only in conjunction with other types of controls, such as safe work practices designed specifically for the site condition and/or PPE. Examples include:
If elimination, substitution or engineering controls eliminate the hazard, it may also remove the need to control employee behaviors through the use of administrative controls. Remember:
No hazard... no exposure... no accident.
No hazard... no exposure... no accident.
Warnings may be visual, audible, or both. They may also be tactile.
Administrative controls include the development and deployment of safety policies, processes, procedures, rules, training, scheduling, and safe work practices. Ultimately, effective administrative controls will successfully eliminate the human behaviors that result in most workplace accidents. Examples of laboratory administrative controls include:
Administrative controls are only as effective as the safety management system that supports them. It's always better to eliminate the hazard so that you don't have to rely on management controls that tend to work only as long as employees behave.
To make sure these controls are effective in the long term, they must be designed from a base of solid hazard analysis and sustained by a supportive safety culture. They then must be accompanied by adequate resources, training, supervision, and appropriate consequences. Remember, administrative controls should be used in conjunction with, and not as a substitute for, more effective or reliable engineering controls. Now, let's look at examples of some administrative controls.
Using personal protective equipment is a very important safe work practice. It's important to remember, like other administrative controls, the use of PPE does not control the hazard itself, but rather it merely controls exposure to the hazard by setting up a barrier between the employee and the hazard. Use of PPE may also be appropriate for controlling hazards while engineering controls are being installed or work practices developed.
The limitations and drawbacks of safe work practices also apply to PPE. Employees need training in why the PPE is necessary and how to use and maintain it. It also is important to understand that PPE is designed for specific functions and are not suitable in all situations. For example, no one type of glove or apron will protect against all solvents. To pick the appropriate glove or apron, you should refer to recommendations on the safety data sheets of the chemicals you are using.
Your employees need positive reinforcement and fair, consistent enforcement of the rules governing PPE use. Some employees may resist wearing PPE according to the rules, because some PPE is uncomfortable and puts additional stress on employees, making it unpleasant or difficult for them to work safely. This is a significant drawback, particularly where heat stress is already a factor in the work environment. An ill-fitting or improperly selected respirator is particularly hazardous, since respirators are used only where other feasible controls have failed to eliminate a hazard.
When a hazard is recognized, the preferred correction or control cannot always be accomplished immediately. However, in virtually all situations, interim measures can be taken to eliminate or reduce worker risk. These can range from taping down wires that pose a tripping hazard to actually shutting down an operation temporarily.
The importance of taking these interim protective actions cannot be overemphasized. There is no way to predict when a hazard will cause serious harm, and no justification to continue exposing workers unnecessarily to risk. By the way, OSHA believes there is always some kind of interim measure that can be used to temporarily reduce or remove a hazard.
What two general types of maintenance processes are needed?
An essential part of any day-to-day safety and health effort is the correction of hazards that occur in spite of your overall prevention and control program. Documenting these corrections is equally important, particularly for larger sites.
Documentation is important because:
The hierarchy of controls is the standard system of strategies to effectively eliminate workplace hazards. Remember, the first question to ask when considering ways to eliminate a hazard is, "can we apply engineering controls?" You may need to use a combination of strategies to effectively eliminate the hazard. Whatever it takes, do it. You are not just saving a life... you are saving a father, a mother, a son, or a daughter... you are saving a family. It's worth the effort.
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