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Course 800 - Introduction to Construction Safety Management

Safety guides and audits to make your job as a safety professional easier

CSMS and Worksite Analysis

worksite analysis
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Plan for Worksite Analysis

When planning for a construction worksite analysis, be sure to include the following five processes:

  1. a comprehensive baseline survey
  2. identify hazards
  3. job hazard analyses (JHA)
  4. periodic and daily safety inspections
  5. change analysis

The Comprehensive Baseline Survey

A comprehensive baseline survey should include a review of previous accidents, injuries, and illnesses; complaints; previous studies; etc. Comprehensive surveys should be performed depending on the business size and nature of the hazards at least every three years by private consultants, insurance company, and/or state-funded programs.

The baseline survey should include a review of the following:

  1. copies of written inspections and surveys by: fire department, in-house as required by safety and health standards (e.g, overhead crane inspections, powered industrial truck daily inspection, etc.)
  2. employee report of hazards or potential hazards
  3. accident and incident investigations with corrective actions and follow-up
  4. injury and illness trend analysis
  5. personal protective equipment assessment
  6. ergonomic analysis
  7. specific identification of confined spaces
  8. identification of energy sources for specific machines

As part of the worksite analysis process, the employer/general contractor should also require subcontractors to perform a baseline analysis as necessary in accordance with OSHA and company requirements. The subcontractors should share pertinent information with the general contractor, and/or other subcontractors.

Change Analysis

As you know, change is continuous on a construction worksite. Change analysis is simply the management of that change, conducted by competent persons, to make sure it does not introduce new hazards or unsafe procedures in the work environment.

A designated person should analyze how changes on the worksite can affect equipment, processes, and materials for hazards and potential hazards. Findings should be documented and plans developed to minimize or design out the new hazards.

Changes in the following categories need to be reviewed:

  1. worksite layout
  2. materials
  3. process technology
  4. equipment

Change Analysis (Continued)

To more specifically analyze how changes worksite layout, materials, processes and equipment, affect the work being conducted, include the following in your analysis:

  • emergency routes
  • site entrance and traffic routes/surfaces
  • covered walkways
  • protection from falling objects
  • danger areas
  • storage and personnel areas
  • hazardous materials/dangerous goods
  • barriers and fences
  • loading and unloading areas
  • bays and ramps
  • working slopes for excavators, dump trucks etc.
  • safety signage
  • protection of pedestrians
  • site security
  • housekeeping and cleanliness

Job Hazard Analysis (JHA)

A Job Hazard Analysis is a technique that focuses on job tasks as a way to identify hazards before they occur. It focuses on the relationship among the worker, the task, the tools, and the work environment. Ideally, after you identify uncontrolled hazards, you will take steps to eliminate or reduce them to an acceptable risk level.

A JHA should be conducted for all hazardous jobs/procedures to determine potential hazards and identify methods to reduce exposure to those hazards at construction worksites. Here are the steps in a basic JHA:

  1. List the steps in the job or procedure.
  2. Describe the safety and health hazards in each step.
  3. Develop preventive measures.
  4. Write a safe job procedure.

Click here to see a sample JHA.

You can learn more about conducting a JHA in Course 706.

Safety Inspections and Reports

Employees play a key role in identifying, controlling, and reporting hazards that may occur or already exist in your workplace. Safety inspection reports of potential hazards can be an effective tool to trigger a closer look at a piece of equipment, operation, or how work is being performed. Reports of potential hazards can also provide suggestions to eliminate a hazard.

There are many positive reasons for conducting safety inspections, including:

  • helping ensure compliance with OSHA and meet other legal responsibility
  • involving both management and employees
  • identifying areas of high risk and controlling hazards
  • developing positive attitudes - demonstrating leadership
  • suggesting better methods of doing procedures safely

OSHA Requirements

The following is a list of topics relevant to worksite analysis by identifying worksite hazards:

  • Evaluate operations, procedures, facilities, and equipment to identify hazards [29 CFR 1926.20(a), 29 CFR 1926.21(b)]
  • Monitor exposure levels [29 CFR 1926.55, 29 CFR 1926.62, 29 CFR 1926 Subpart Z, 29 CFR 1926.1101]
  • Ensure regular safety and health inspections [29 CFR 1926.20(b)(2), 29 CFR 1926.703(b), 29 CFR 1926.1081]
  • Conduct accident investigations [29 CFR 1904.4]
  • Determine if engineering or administrative controls or personnel protective equipment are to be used [29 CFR 1926.103, 29 CFR 1926.951]


Here's an interesting sample clip on job safety/hazard analysis from the DVD available at: Changent Systems


Before beginning this quiz, we highly recommend you review the module material. This quiz is designed to allow you to self-check your comprehension of the module content, but only focuses on key concepts and ideas.

Read each question carefully. Select the best answer, even if more than one answer seems possible. When done, click on the "Get Quiz Answers" button. If you do not answer all the questions, you will receive an error message.

Good luck!

1. When planning for a construction worksite analysis, be sure to conduct a/an _____.

2. All of the following should be included in a comprehensive baseline survey, except _____.

3. Which of the following analysis techniques include a review of worksite layout, materials being used, processes, and equipment?

4. All of the following should be reviewed to more specifically analyze how changes that affect safety occur on the worksite, except _____.

5. All of the following are good reasons to conduct daily safety inspections on the worksite, except _____.

Have a great day!

Important! You will receive an "error" message unless all questions are answered.