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Course 800 - Introduction to Construction Safety Management

Safety guides and audits to make your job as a safety professional easier

CSMS and Worksite Analysis

worksite analysis
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Plan for Worksite Analysis

Worksite Analysis is a combination of systematic actions to provide you with the information you need to recognize and understand the hazards and potential hazards of your workplace.

When planning for a construction worksite analysis, be sure to conduct comprehensive worksite surveys to establish safety and health hazard inventories and update them periodically as changes occur. Analyze planned and new facilities, processes, materials, and equipment; and perform routine hazard analysis of jobs, processes and/or varied phases of work, as needed.

  1. a comprehensive baseline survey
  2. change analysis
  3. job hazard analyses (JHAs)
  4. periodic and daily safety inspections

Other important activities to perform when conducting worksite analysis include:

  • Employee reports of hazards, accidents, and near-misses.
  • Accident/incident investigations.
  • Injury and illness trend analysis

1. Each of the following is one of the four basic processes that should be a part of every worksite analysis EXCEPT _____.

a. a basic baseline survey
b. change analysis
c. job hazard analyses (JHAs)
d. injury and illness trend analysis

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The Comprehensive Baseline Survey

A comprehensive baseline survey should include a review of previous accidents, injuries, and illnesses; complaints; previous studies; etc. Comprehensive surveys should be performed depending on the business size and nature of the hazards at least every three years by private consultants, insurance company, and/or state-funded programs.

The baseline survey should include a review of the following:

  1. copies of written inspections and surveys by: fire department, in-house as required by safety and health standards (e.g, overhead crane inspections, powered industrial truck daily inspection, etc.)
  2. employee report of hazards or potential hazards
  3. accident and incident investigations with corrective actions and follow-up
  4. injury and illness trend analysis
  5. personal protective equipment assessment
  6. ergonomic analysis
  7. specific identification of confined spaces
  8. identification of energy sources for specific machines

As part of the worksite analysis process, the employer/general contractor should also require subcontractors to perform a baseline analysis as necessary in accordance with OSHA and company requirements. The subcontractors should share pertinent information with the general contractor, and/or other subcontractors.

2. Comprehensive surveys should be performed, depending on the business size and nature of the hazards, at least every _____.

a. three years
b. five years
c. time OSHA inspects
d. three months

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Change Analysis

As you know, change is continuous on a construction worksite. Change analysis is simply the management of that change, conducted by competent persons, to make sure it does not introduce new hazards or unsafe procedures in the work environment.

A designated person should analyze how changes on the worksite can affect equipment, processes, and materials for hazards and potential hazards. Findings should be documented and plans developed to minimize or design out the new hazards.

Changes in the following categories need to be reviewed:

  1. worksite layout
  2. materials
  3. process technology
  4. equipment

3. Change analysis focuses on analyzing all of the following worksite categories EXCEPT _____.

a. dealing with OSHA inspections
b. worksite layout
c. contractor/subcontractors
d. tools, equipment, and materials

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Change Analysis (Continued)

To more specifically analyze how changes worksite layout, materials, processes and equipment, affect the work being conducted, include the following examples in your analysis:

  1. worksite layout
    • emergency routes - worksite layout and process design
    • site entrance and traffic routes/surfaces- worksite layout
    • danger areas
    • working slopes for excavators, dump trucks etc.
    • storage and personnel areas
    • loading and unloading areas
    • barriers and fences
  2. contractor/subcontractors
    • site security
    • protection of pedestrians
    • safety signage
  3. tools, equipment, and materials
    • hazardous materials/dangerous goods
  4. process design and technology
    • housekeeping and cleanliness
    • covered walkways
    • protection from falling objects
    • bays and ramps

4. Which change analysis category do danger areas, emergency routes, and loading and unloading areas belong?

a. Worksite layout
b. Tools, equipment, and materials
c. Process design and technology
d. Contractors/Subcontractors

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Job Hazard Analysis (JHA)

A Job Hazard Analysis is a good technique that focuses on job tasks as a way to identify hazards and unsafe practices before they cause injuries or illnesses. It focuses on the relationship among the worker, the task, the tools, and the work environment. Ideally, after you identify uncontrolled hazards, you will take steps to eliminate or reduce them to an acceptable risk level.

A JHA should be conducted for all hazardous jobs/procedures to determine potential hazards and identify methods to reduce exposure to those hazards at construction worksites. Here are the steps in a basic JHA:

  1. List the steps in the job or procedure.
  2. Describe the safety and health hazards in each step.
  3. Develop preventive measures.
  4. Write a safe job procedure.

Click here to see a sample JHA.

You can learn more about conducting a JHA in Course 706.

5. Which analysis process is used to identify hazards and unsafe practices before they cause injuries or illnesses?

a. Root Cause Analysis
b. Phase Analysis
c. Job Hazard Analysis (JHA)
d. Change Analysis

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Safety Inspections and Reports

Safety inspections are the best understood and most frequently used tool to assess the workplace for hazards. The term "inspection" means a general walk-around examination of every part of the worksite to locate conditions that do not comply with safety standards. Safety inspection reports of potential hazards can be an effective tool to trigger a closer look at how work is being performed.

There are many positive reasons for conducting safety inspections, including:

  • helping ensure compliance with OSHA and meet other legal responsibility
  • involving both management and employees
  • identifying areas of high risk and controlling hazards
  • developing positive attitudes - demonstrating leadership
  • suggesting better methods of doing procedures safely

Slow Down and Look Around

Be careful you don't suffer from "tunnel vision" when conducting the safety inspection. When you have tunnel vision, you focus on identifying hazards, but miss unsafe work practices occurring around you. Since most accidents are primarily the result of unsafe behaviors, it makes sense to take the time needed to observe work being done as you conduct the inspection. You can read more about conducting effective safety inspections in Course 704, Hazard Analysis and Control.

6. What is a weakness in the typical walk-around safety inspection?

a. Lack of efficient discovery
b. Asking too many questions
c. Tunnel vision
d. Too much accountability

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OSHA Requirements

The following is a list of topics relevant to worksite analysis by identifying worksite hazards:

  • Evaluate operations, procedures, facilities, and equipment to identify hazards [29 CFR 1926.20(a), 29 CFR 1926.21(b)]
  • Monitor exposure levels [29 CFR 1926.55, 29 CFR 1926.62, 29 CFR 1926 Subpart Z, 29 CFR 1926.1101]
  • Ensure regular safety and health inspections [29 CFR 1926.20(b)(2), 29 CFR 1926.703(b), 29 CFR 1926.1081]
  • Conduct accident investigations [29 CFR 1904.4]
  • Determine if engineering or administrative controls or personnel protective equipment are to be used [29 CFR 1926.103, 29 CFR 1926.951]

Recognized and Foreseeable Hazards

When conducting the worksite analysis, it's important to look for hazards that are generally recognized within the construction industry. Recognized hazards are generally foreseeable on the worksite OSHA will require that these hazards are properly eliminated or controlled.

"Recognized: Hazards

As described in OSHA's Field Operations Manual, recognition of a hazard is established on the basis of industry recognition, employer recognition, or "common sense" recognition criteria.

  • Industry Recognition: A hazard is recognized if the employer's industry recognizes it. Recognition by an industry, other than the industry to which the employer belongs, is generally insufficient to prove industry recognition. Although evidence of recognition by the employer's specific branch within an industry is preferred, evidence that the employer's industry recognizes the hazard may be sufficient.
  • Employer Recognition: A recognized hazard can be established by evidence of actual employer knowledge. Evidence of such recognition may consist of written or oral statements made by the employer or other management or supervisory personnel
  • Common Sense Recognition: If industry or employer recognition of the hazard cannot be established, recognition can still be established if it is concluded that any reasonable person would have recognized the hazard. This argument is used by OSHA only in flagrant cases. Note: Throughout our courses we argue that "common sense" is a dangerous concept in safety. Employers should not assume that accidents in the worksite are the result of a lack of common sense.

7. OSHA establishes "recognition of a hazard" based on each of the following EXCEPT _____.

a. employer recognition
b. employee recognition
c. common sense recognition
d. industry recognition

Check your Work

Read the material in each section to find the correct answer to each quiz question. After answering all the questions, click on the "Check Quiz Answers" button to grade your quiz and see your score. You will receive a message if you forgot to answer one of the questions. After clicking the button, the questions you missed will be listed below. You can correct any missed questions and check your answers again.



Here's an interesting sample clip on job safety/hazard analysis from the DVD available at: Changent Systems

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