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Course 800 - Introduction to Construction Safety Management

Safety guides and audits to make your job as a safety professional easier

Education and Training

training

Introduction

This module will introduce you to general OSHA requirements for education and training in the construction industry. We will not only look at the minimum requirements, but all address best practices in effective safety and health education programs.

The employer should conduct construction safety training courses and educational programs in compliance with OSHA standard 1926.21, Safety training and education, primarily to help broaden worker and manager knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) to recognize, avoid, and prevent safety and health hazards on jobsites.

Click on the button below to see a list of the OSHA standards associated with training employees.

To learn more about safety education and training, be sure to complete OSHAcademy Courses 703, 721, and 723.

Check out this short audio clip by Dan Clark of the theSafetyBrief.com on the "Fatal Four" construction dangers. Be sure to train these topics.

1. The primary reason employers should conduct construction safety training is to make sure employees _____ on jobsites.

a. comply with OSHA rules and regulations
b. report unsafe behaviors to supervisors
c. recognize, avoid, and prevent hazards
d. correct all observed hazards

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Informing Employees of Hazards

It’s very important for the employer to establish safety education and training for employees so that they know how to avoid and prevent of unsafe conditions at the construction worksite.

Employers should also educate all employees on how to control or eliminate any hazards to which they are exposed.

Employees required to handle or use poisons, caustics, and other harmful substances should be instructed on how to safely handle and use them, and first aid procedures if exposure occurs. Employees should also be made aware of the potential hazards, personal hygiene, and personal protective measures required.

Employees required to enter into confined or enclosed spaces should instructed as to the nature of the hazards involved, the necessary precautions to take, and how to use protective and emergency equipment.

Employers must inform employees about the hazards of all classified chemicals produced or imported.

Employees who perform work while on a scaffold must be trained by a qualified person to:

scaffolding
  1. recognize the hazards associated with the type of scaffold being used
  2. understand the procedures to control or minimize those hazards

The employer must inform workers on the physical and health hazards associated with toxic and hazardous substances to which employees may be exposed on the worksite.

Employers must provide workers and their designated representatives a right of access to relevant exposure and medical records. Employers must provide OSHA representatives access to these records in order to fulfill responsibilities under the OSH Act.

2. Employees who perform work while on a scaffold must be trained by a _____.

a. representative of OSHA
b. another worker
c. qualified person
d. safety staff

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Implementing Education and Training

The company should provide safety information and training to assure the requirements of OSHA standards are met and it should continuously evaluate employee training needs to keep workers safe and healthy on the job.

New Employee Orientation

New employees should receive training on your companies safety and health management system, safe work practices and expectations, and specific safety and health training for the tasks that they will perform.

After inspecting a job site, a designated person should identify and evaluate all potential hazards that may cause serious injuries and increase the probability of an accident. Actions will be taken to minimize the hazards and protect the workers.

The Safety Coordinator or other designated site safety person will appraise the skill and knowledge level of exposed workers, and provide any needed training. Appropriate training should be provided where it is needed.

The following things must also be done when training new employees:

  • Hazards must be identified.
  • Necessary precautions will be explained.
  • Training length and level of detail should be determined by the severity of the hazards and the requirements of OSHA.
  • Records should be maintained for all training sessions with descriptions of topics covered and names of workers trained.

Toolbox Talks

Toolbox talks should be conducted regularly (weekly or daily). Topics covered should include:

  • the safe work practices necessary for that day’s work
  • any safety concerns workers may have
  • brief refresher training on relevant safety topics (topics to be provided by the Safety Coordinator)

3. Training length and level of detail should be determined by the severity of the hazards and the _____.

a. requirements of OSHA
b. the safety committee
c. size of the project
d. safety manager

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A Simple Seven Step On-The-Job Training (OJT) Process

Safety training should be simple training. It should be done where the task is performed, and hopefully the supervisor is conducting the training. Here is a seven-step OJT training process that helps to ensure new employees don't get hurt while being trained. We know it may appear to be unnecessary, but new construction workers get hurt regularly while being initially taught how to do a job.

Step 1- Introduction: State and discuss the learning objectives and answer any questions the employee may have. Discuss the acceptable standards of knowledge and performance. Tell the trainee what you're going to train. Emphasize the importance of the procedure to the success of the production/service goals.

Step 2- Trainer shows and tells: In this step the trainee becomes familiar with each work practice and why it is important. Review the initial conditions for the procedure. Demonstrate the process, carefully explaining each step as you go. Answer questions and continue to demonstrate and explain until the employee understands what to do, when and why to do it, and how to do it.

Step 3- Learner tells - Trainer shows: This step is necessary when exposure to hazards inherent in the procedure could cause serious harm. It protects the trainee because the trainer performs the procedure. The trainee explains the procedure to the trainer, while the trainer does it.

4. In Step 3 of the 7-Step OJT process, how does the trainer make sure the trainee does not get hurt while practicing during a training session?

a. The trainee explains the task and the trainer does it
b. The trainee explains the task and then does it
c. The trainer explains the task and then does it
d. The trainer explains the task and the trainee does it

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On-The-Job Training (OJT) Process (Continued)

Step 4: Learner shows and tells: The trainer has the trainee do it. The trainee explains the step, gets permission to perform the step and then carries out the step. This step is very important when training tasks that might result in serious physical injury or death if not performed correctly.

Step 5- Conclusion: Recognize accomplishment: "Good job!” Reemphasize the importance of the procedure and how it fits into the overall process. Tie the training again to accountability by discussing the natural and system consequences of performance.

Step 6- Validate: After the conclusion of the OJT session, observe the employee perform in the actual workplace and question the employee to validate that the training has been successful and that the employee has adequate knowledge, skills, and a proper attitude about the work.

Step 7- Document: The well-known OSHA adage, "if it isn't in writing, it didn't get done," is true for any kind of safety training. For OJT training, documentation should be more than an attendance sheet.

To document the training, the trainee certifies:

  • training was accomplished
  • questions were answered
  • opportunities provided to do procedure
  • accountabilities understood
  • intent to comply

The instructor certifies the trainee has:

  • demonstrated adequate knowledge
  • developed the skills to complete the procedures

We have included a sample training certification in the final two sections of this module, and you can learn more about the OJT process in OSHAcademy Course 723.

Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines. OSHA's Training Requirements Guide. Here's a great booklet that covers many OSHA training requirements and also gives you some ideas on training strategies.

5. In Step 4 of the 7-Step OJT process, what must the trainee do prior to performing a hazardous task to make sure an injury does not occur?

a. Sign a waiver in case an injury occurs
b. Ask the trainer to explain the task prior to doing it
c. Get permission to do the task before performing it
d. Repeat the task before asking the trainer if it is correct

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Safety and Health Work Observations

confined space

Safety and health work observations should be performed periodically by supervisors or designated observers. Observations may be conducted randomly in an informal program, or they may be planned when a formal observations program (Behavior Based Safety Program) is part of the CSMS.

Safety and health work observations ensure:

  • an employee has the knowledge to perform the work as trained
  • the employee is actually performing their work task safely

Specific observations or audits are especially critical for lockout/tagout, confined space, fall protection and other programs where the risk of exposure to hazards is high. Results should be documented and follow-up training should be provided as needed. This process helps assure safety and health training is effective.

6. What is the purpose of the post-training observations/evaluations conducted after employees complete training in hazardous tasks?

a. To be able to let workers complete tasks without supervision
b. To be able to show documentation to OSHA if they inspect
c. To make sure that any non-compliance will result in disciplinary procedures
d. To make sure they have adequate KSAs and can work safely

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Documentation

When safety training requires employees to demonstrate knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) in performing hazardous procedures or using safe practices, an attendance roster may not be legally sufficient to document the training. It should include formal written certification that KSAs have been achieved.

Adequate certification of training should be signed by the employee, the trainer, and the supervisor.

Click on the link to see a Training Certification Sample.

Click on the button below to see a list of the items to include in safety training.

At a minimum, certification should include the following information:

  • trainee's name;
  • course title;
  • date, location and hours of instruction;
  • statement that the trainee has successfully completed the course;
  • name and address of training provider;
  • date periodic refresher training is due (if required) or expiration date;
  • a unique trainee identification number;
  • the level of training or type of certificate awarded;
  • any other information required by regulation; and
  • number of credits (CECs, CEUs, etc), if issued. Make sure employees have met all requirements for credits.

Click on the button below to see a list of the items to include make sure OSHA considers your documentation as adequate.

To make sure the training is adequate, make sure you include:

  • trainee statement that he/she was provided opportunity to ask questions and perform procedures and practices;
  • trainer statement that trainees, through testing, demonstrated adequate knowledge;
  • trainer statement that measurement (testing) of knowledge and skills was conducted and that trainees met or exceeded required levels of performance;
  • trainee statement of intent to comply with the procedures, practices, policies, and rules;
  • trainee statement of understanding that failure to comply may result in discipline;
  • a list or description of the specific subject(s) being trained;
  • a list or description of the specific procedures practiced;
  • certification - a place for trainee, trainer, and supervisor signatures.

7. Adequate certification of training should be signed by the _____.

a. trainer, supervisor, and the employer
b. employee, trainer, and the supervisor
c. safety manager, trainer, and the employee
d. employee, and the trainer

Check your Work

Read the material in each section to find the correct answer to each quiz question. After answering all the questions, click on the "Check Quiz Answers" button to grade your quiz and see your score. You will receive a message if you forgot to answer one of the questions. After clicking the button, the questions you missed will be listed below. You can correct any missed questions and check your answers again.

Video

Video

This is a good video by Russell Hills on implementing and evaluating on-the-job training. Worth watching if you have the time. (19:07)

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