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Course 808: Focus Four - Struck-By Hazards

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Course 808 Certificate
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Modules: 2
Hours: 1.5
Sector: Construction

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Course 808 Focus Four: Struck By Hazards

Key Topics

  • Defining "Struck-By Hazard"
  • Common Types of Struck-By Hazards
  • How to Protect Yourself from Fall Hazards
  • Safe Work Pracitices
  • Heavy Equipment Struck-By Hazards
  • Personal Protective Equipment
  • Motorized Vehicle Struck-By Hazards
  • Employer Requirements
  • Training

Target Audience

  • Employee
  • Supervisor
  • Manager
  • Contractor

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Focus Four - Struck-By Hazards


Welcome to Focus Four – Struck-By Hazards for the construction industry. This is the third course covering the hazards described in our Construction Focus Four Hazards series. Please be sure to complete the series by also taking courses 806, 808, and 809. The Focus Four Hazards series was developed in support of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Construction Outreach Program’s effort to help educate workers in the construction industry about:

  • understanding the hazards they face; and
  • knowing what their employer’s responsibilities are to protect workers from workplace hazards.

Construction is among the most dangerous industries in the country and construction inspections comprise 60% of OSHA's total inspections.

  • In 2013, preliminary data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics indicate that there were 796 fatal on-the-job injuries to construction workers – more than in any other single industry sector and nearly one out of every five work-related deaths in the U.S. that year.
  • Also in 2013, private industry construction workers had a fatal occupational injury rate nearly three times that of all workers in the United States: 9.4 per 100,000 full-time equivalent construction workers vs. 3.2 for all workers.

Given current OSHA and industry information regarding construction worksite illnesses, injuries and/or fatalities, students that complete this course will be able to recognize fall hazards, caught-in or-between hazards, struck-by hazards, and electrocution hazards (focus four hazards) employees face in the construction industry.

Students completing the four courses in the Focus Four Hazards series will be able to recognize fall hazards, caught-in or-between hazards, struck-by hazards, and electrocution hazards employees face in the construction industry.

Specifically, once students complete the Focus Four Hazards series they will be able to:

  • Identify common focus four hazards.
  • Describe types of focus four hazards.
  • Protect themselves from focus four hazards.
  • Recognize employer requirements to protect workers from focus four hazards.


To begin your training, click on the module links below. If you are just starting this course, you should begin with module one.

  1. What is a Struck-by Hazard?
  2. Protecting Yourself from Struck-by Hazards

Please login to your student dashboard to access and download this FREE course PDF studyguide. You can save this study guide to your computer for offline studying, or print the study guide if you prefer.

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Course 808 Final Exam

Exam score sheet

After studying the course material and answering the quiz questions, it is time to take the final exam. We highly recommend answering the module quiz questions to check your understanding of the course material. The final exam questions are typically developed from these quiz questions.

OSHAcademy course final exams are designed to make sure students have gained a sufficient understanding of the content covered within each course. To help demonstrate this understanding, students must achieve a passing score on course final exams. It is OSHAcademy's policy to protect the integrity of our exams: as a result, we do not provide missed questions to students.

This is an open book exam. Students are permitted to use a separate browser window to review course content while taking the exam. If you do not pass a final exam, you will see a "Retake Exam" button next to the course on your student dashboard.

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Attendant: An employee assigned to remain immediately outside the entrance to an enclosed or other space to render assistance as needed to employees inside the space.

Audible signal: a signal made by a distinct sound or series of sounds. Examples include, but are not limited to, sounds made by a bell, horn, or whistle.

Authorized person: a person approved or assigned by the employer to perform a specific type of duty or duties or to be at a specific location or locations at the jobsite.

Barricade: an obstruction to deter the passage of persons or vehicles.

Boom (equipment other than tower crane): an inclined spar, strut, or other long structural member which supports the upper hoisting tackle on a crane or derrick. Typically, the length and vertical angle of the boom can be varied to achieve increased height or height and reach when lifting loads. Booms can usually be grouped into general categories of hydraulically extendible, cantilevered type, latticed section, cable supported type or articulating type.

Boom (tower cranes): On tower cranes, if the "boom" (i.e., principal horizontal structure) is fixed, it is referred to as a jib; if it is moveable up and down, it is referred to as a boom.

Builder: the builder/constructor of equipment.

Competent person: one who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.

Construction work: work for construction, alteration, and/or repair, including painting and decorating.

Controlling entity: an employer that is a prime contractor, general contractor, construction manager or any other legal entity which has the overall responsibility for the construction of the project--its planning, quality and completion.

Defect: any characteristic or condition which tends to weaken or reduce the strength of the tool, object, or structure of which it is a part.

Designated employee (designated person): An employee (or person) who is assigned by the employer to perform specific duties under the terms of this subpart and who has sufficient knowledge of the construction and operation of the equipment, and the hazards involved, to perform his or her duties safely.

Guarded: Covered, fenced, enclosed, or otherwise protected, by means of suitable covers or casings, barrier rails or screens, mats, or platforms, designed to minimize the possibility, under normal conditions, of dangerous approach or inadvertent contact by persons or objects.

Headache ball: a weighted hook that is used to attach loads to the hoist load line of the crane.

Hoist: a mechanical device for lifting and lowering loads by winding a line onto or off a drum.

Hoisting: the act of raising, lowering or otherwise moving a load in the air with equipment covered by this standard. As used in this standard, "hoisting" can be done by means other than wire rope/hoist drum equipment.

Hoisting equipment: commercially manufactured lifting equipment designed to lift and position a load of known weight to a location at some known elevation and horizontal distance from the equipment's center of rotation. "Hoisting equipment" includes but is not limited to cranes, derricks, tower cranes, barge-mounted derricks or cranes, gin poles and gantry hoist systems. A "come-a-long" (a mechanical device, usually consisting of a chain or cable attached at each end, that is used to facilitate movement of materials through leverage) is not considered "hoisting equipment."

Leading edge: the unprotected side and edge of a floor, roof, or formwork for a floor or other walking/working surface (such as deck) which changes location as additional floor, roof, decking or formwork sections are placed, formed or constructed.

Load: the object(s) being hoisted and/or the weight of the object(s); both uses refer to the object(s) and the load-attaching equipment, such as, the load block, ropes, slings, shackles, and any other ancillary attachment.

Multiple lift rigging: a rigging assembly manufactured by wire rope rigging suppliers that facilitates the attachment of up to five independent loads to the hoist rigging of a crane.

Operator: a person who is operating the equipment.

Procedures: instructions, diagrams, recommendations, warnings, specifications, protocols and limitations.

Qualified person: a person who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training and experience, successfully demonstrated the ability to solve/resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the work, or the project.

Rated capacity: the maximum working load permitted by the manufacturer under specified working conditions. Such working conditions typically include a specific combination of factors such as equipment configuration, radii, boom length, and other parameters of use.

Signs: the warnings of hazard, temporarily or permanently affixed or placed, at locations where hazards exist.

Signals: moving signs, provided by workers, such as flaggers, or by devices, such as flashing lights, to warn of possible or existing hazards.

Tags: temporary signs, usually attached to a piece of equipment or part of a structure, to warn of existing or immediate hazards.

Unprotected sides and edges: any side or edge (except at entrances to points of access) of a walking/working surface, for example a, floor, roof, ramp or runway, where there is no wall or guardrail system at least 39 inches (1.0 m) high.

Source for definitions: 29 CFR 1926, i.e. OSHA’s definitions for terms in the construction industry


  1. OSHA Training Institute. (2011). Construction Focus Four: Caught-In or –Between Hazards. Instructor Guide. Retrieved from:
  2. OSHA Website
  3. BLS Website
  4. CDC/NIOSH Website
  5. Construction Hazard Awareness, by the University of Alabama Continuing Studies Environmental and Industrial Programs website
  6. Construction Safety Council website
  7. Eye and Face Protection eTool
  8. McCann, Michael of CPWR - The Center for Construction Research and Training based on BLS data, as presented at 2010 Crane and Rigging Conference May 27, 2010
  9. Susan Harwood Grant from OSHA materials:
  • Number SH-16591-07-06-F-11 – International Union of Operating Engineers National Training Fund Focus Four
  • Number SH-16586-07-06-F-36 – National Council for Occupational Safety and Health, Chapel Hill, NC, Construction Safety and Health “Struck-by” Hazards Grantee module
  • Number SH-17792-08-60-F-48 – Compacion Foundation