The use of heavy equipment is an important part of residential, commercial, and roadway construction and maintenance operations. A variety of heavy equipment are used in construction and maintenance.
Heavy equipment can be classified into the following categories based on the type of operation:
Depending upon their versatility, heavy equipment may be used for multiple purposes. For example, backhoes are normally used for excavating but they can also load the excavated materials into trucks.
An excavator is a power-driven machine mostly used in earthmoving operations. Heavy equipment typically used for excavating include the following:
Cranes are used for raising, shifting and lowering loads by means of a projecting swinging arm or with the hoisting apparatus supported on an overhead truck. An appropriate capacity of crane shall be chosen to work for a specified size of load. The use of a crane for loads beyond its capacity poses several hazards to workers, as well as operators.
Note that coverage is limited here. For detailed information, refer to the OSHA standard (Subpart N 1926.550) for cranes.
Loaders: Loaders are used to excavate and move soft materials and load/unload trucks.
Dozer (Bulldozer): Dozers are used for pushing and pulling loads typically in earthwork operations and demolition work.
Scrapers: Scrapers are used for loading, hauling, dumping, and spreading loose materials.
Dump Trucks: Dump Trucks are the most common type of hauling equipment due to their versatility.
Wagons: Wagons are earth moving trailers pulled by tractors.
Rollers: Rollers are used for compacting road bed materials like earth, aggregates and bituminous mixtures. There are various types of rollers. The selection of rollers for a particular job depends upon the types of material to be compacted.
The following are the types of rollers commonly used in highway and street construction/maintenance: 814-4-x-comp-mndot.gif Note: This is an animated gif image, so it must be saved properly to work.
Graders are commonly referred to as road graders, or motor graders. They have a long blade used to create a flat surface during the grading process. Graders are multi-purpose equipment used for:
Paving equipment (paving machine, paver finisher, asphalt finisher) is used to lay asphalt on the surfaces of roads, parking lots, bridges, etc. Here is an expanded list of paving equipment operations:
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