The crane standard requires a variety of inspections to ensure equipment is in a safe condition. The following inspections are required of all equipment:
In addition, the following special inspections are required in particular circumstances:
Sample Crane Checklist, North Carolina.
A competent person must visually inspect the equipment each shift the equipment is used. Taking apart equipment components and booming down is not required as part of this inspection unless the results of the visual inspection or trial operation indicate that further investigation is needed. At a minimum, the inspection must include all of the following:
If the inspection shows a safety device (see Standard 1415 for a list of required safety devices) is not working properly, the equipment must not be used. If it shows an operational aid (see Standard 1416 for a list of required operational aids) is not working properly, the equipment may be used for a limited period (7 or 30 calendar days depending on the type of operational aid) as long as specified temporary alternative precautions are taken. For the other items covered by the inspection, if the inspector finds any deficiency in an item, he/she must determine if the deficiency is serious enough to be a safety hazard. If so, the equipment must not be used until the deficiency is corrected. Shift inspections need not be documented.
The monthly inspection is the same as a shift inspection for most equipment. For tower cranes, the following additional items must be inspected (Standard 1435(f)(4)):
The following information must be documented and maintained for a minimum of three months by the employer that conducts the inspection:
The annual inspection must be conducted by a qualified person and is far more thorough than a shift or monthly inspection. In addition to those items that must be checked during a shift inspection, the annual inspection must include:
If a qualified person who conducts an inspection identifies any deficiency in any of the items inspected and determines the deficiency constitutes a safety hazard, the equipment must be taken out of service until the deficiency is corrected. (See the discussion above under shift inspections for the corrective action required if an operational aid is not working properly). If a qualified person determines, even though not presently a safety hazard, the deficiency needs to be monitored, the employer must ensure the deficiency is checked in the monthly inspections.
The following information must be documented, maintained, and retained for a minimum of 12 months, by the employer that conducts the inspection:
Before the equipment can be used, it must be inspected by a qualified person to ensure it is configured in accord with manufacturer equipment criteria. The qualified person may be the A/D director. Where manufacturer equipment criteria are unavailable, a qualified person must:
Tower crane components must be inspected for damage or excessive wear by a qualified person before being erected. The qualified person must pay particular attention to components difficult to inspect thoroughly during shift inspections.
If a qualified person determines a component is damaged or worn to the extent it would create a safety hazard if used on the crane, the component must not be erected on the crane. If the damaged or worn component is repaired and, upon re-inspection by a qualified person, is no longer a safety hazard, the component may be erected on the crane. If the qualified person determines, though not presently a safety hazard, the component needs to be monitored, the employer must ensure the component is checked in the monthly inspections. Any such determination must be documented, and the documentation must be available to any individual who conducts a monthly inspection.
In addition to the other requirements listed above for post-assembly inspections, the following requirements must be met:
Where the severity of use/conditions is such that there is a reasonable probability of damage or excessive wear (such as loading that may exceed rated capacity, shock loading exceeding the rated capacity, or prolonged exposure to a corrosive atmosphere), the employer must stop using the equipment and a qualified person must:
Equipment which has been idle for three months or more must be inspected by a qualified person in accord with the requirements for monthly inspections before being used.
Equipment with modifications or additions which affect the safe operation of the equipment (such as a safety device or operational aid, critical part of a control system, power plant, braking system, load-sustaining structural components, load hook, or in-use operating mechanism) or capacity must be inspected by a qualified person, prior to initial use.
Note: Under Standard 1434, any such modification/addition must be approved by either the manufacturer or a registered professional engineer. The inspection must assure the modifications or additions have been made in accord with the approval and must include functional testing of the equipment.
Equipment with a repair or adjustment to ensure safe operation (adjustment to a safety device or operator aid, critical part of a control system, power plant, braking system, load-sustaining structural components, load hook, or in-use operating mechanism) must be inspected by a qualified person, prior to initial use.
A qualified person must determine if the repair/adjustment meets manufacturer equipment criteria (where applicable and available). Where manufacturer equipment criteria are unavailable or inapplicable, a qualified person must determine if a registered professional engineer (RPE) is needed to develop criteria for the repair/adjustment.
If an RPE is not needed, the employer must ensure the criteria is developed by a qualified person. If an RPE is needed, the employer must ensure criteria is developed by the RPE. The inspection must determine if the repair/adjustment meets the criteria developed by the RPE or qualified person and must include functional testing.
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