Wire rope must be inspected as part of the shift, monthly, and annual inspections required by Standard 1412. The shift and monthly inspections must evaluate all visible rope during the shift in which the inspection is conducted. The annual inspection must include the entire length of the rope.
The shift and monthly inspections must pay particular attention to the following:
In addition to these items, the annual inspection must include:
You must take certain action if an inspection reveals a defect in the rope. Some defects require either the rope be removed from service or the damaged section be severed. For others, the inspector must evaluate whether the defect constitutes a safety hazard, with the corrective action depending on the outcome of the evaluation.
Note: if a wire rope must be repaired or replaced, either the equipment (as a whole) or the hoist with that wire rope must be tagged-out during the repair/replacement process.
Where severing the rope is permitted, the damaged section must be discarded. Two undamaged sections may not be spliced to make a longer rope. If the remaining undamaged section is too short for the drum to have two full wraps of rope when the load and/or boom is in its lowest position, the rope cannot be used and must be replaced.
Wire rope that has made electrical contact with a power line (either by the rope, the equipment or the load contacting the line) must be immediately removed from service, even if no damage is visible. The rope may have suffered internal damage which cannot be repaired.
The following defects require the rope to either be removed from service or the defective part severed.
Exception: If the wire rope manufacturer has approved different criteria for visible broken wires or diameter reduction, you may follow those criteria instead of those above.
The following defects must be evaluated by the inspector to determine whether they constitute a safety hazard:
If these defects are found to be hazardous, the rope must be removed from service or the defective part severed.
If they are not found to be an immediate hazard, you may continue to use the rope. However, if such a defect is identified during an annual inspection, you must check it during each monthly inspection. This may require a more complete monthly inspection than would otherwise be required because the annual inspection must cover the entire rope and may reveal a defect in a part of the rope that would not normally be visible during a shift or monthly inspection.
This section requires wire rope be used in accordance with the recommendations of the wire rope manufacturer, the equipment manufacturer, or a qualified person. It establishes a classification system for rotation resistant rope and specifies design factors for the different classes of such rope.
Wire rope is classified as either "standard rope" or "rotation resistant rope." Rotation resistant rope, in turn, can be constructed in various ways, and the standard lists three different "types" that vary in their construction.
For all three types of rotation resistant ropes, internal design resists twisting better than standard rope. Rotation resistant rope, therefore, enables better control of the load because it tends to keep the load from rotating while it is being hoisted or suspended. However, the design of rotation resistant rope makes it more susceptible to internal damage than standard rope, and such internal damage can be hard to detect. Because of the chance of hidden damage, this section restricts the use of rotation resistant rope for boom hoist reeving and duty cycle/repetitive lifts.
Rotation resistant rope may only be used for boom hoist reeving when load hoists are used as boom hoists for attachments such as luffing attachments or boom and mast attachment systems. When you use rotation resistant rope for such a purpose, you must comply with six conditions specified in Standard 1414(e)(4)(ii).
Duty cycle/repetitive lifts: You must meet certain criteria when using rotation resistant rope for duty cycle and repetitive lifts. These are defined as follows:
Duty Cycle: A type of crane service in which bulk material is transferred from one point to another by rapidly lifting, swinging, booming, and placing the material. Typical types of duty cycle service are dragline, clamshell, grapple, and magnet. This type of service is differentiated from standard crane "lift service" in that cycle times are very short and continuous. Cycle times are often less than one minute per load, and loads are lifted and placed in general areas rather than precise positions to permit such rapid cycles.
Repetitive lifts: A continuous operation with loads that may vary in size and weight.
The requirements for using rotation resistant rope for duty cycle and repetitive lifts vary with the type of rotation resistant rope being used and the operating design factor of the rope. If you are using rotation resistant rope for one of these purposes, check the standard for the criteria that apply to the type of rope you are using.
Section 1414 also contains the following requirements:
These sections require cranes/derricks be equipped with certain types of safety equipment. Some types are called safety devices while others are called operational aids. Safety devices must be in proper working order for the equipment to be permitted to operate. If an operational aid is not working properly, the equipment may still be operated for a limited time as long as certain alternative precautions are taken.
Note: Standard 1412 requires safety devices and operational aids to be checked for proper operation during all shift inspections.
Safety devices and operational aids must not be used as a substitute for the exercise of professional judgment by the operator.
The following safety devices are required on all equipment unless otherwise specified:
These are divided into two categories that differ in the amount of time the equipment may operate before they are repaired. While an operational aid is not working properly, the temporary alternative measures specified in the standard must be taken. Category I aids must be repaired within seven calendar days after a deficiency occurs while equipment may operate for 30 calendar days before a Category II aid is repaired. In both cases, additional time is permitted if, a necessary part is ordered in a timely manner but is not received within the 7- or 30-day period.
Certain operational aids are only required on equipment manufactured after a specified date. In some cases, these are past dates that reflect when these devices began to be installed on equipment. In other cases, they are future dates that are intended to give manufacturers time to install the devices on new equipment.
Note: Two-block protection is not required for lattice boom equipment used for dragline, clamshell (grapple), magnet, drop ball, container handling, concrete bucket, marine operations that do not involve hoisting personnel, and pile driving work.
Note: Articulating cranes need not be equipped with boom angle or radius indicators, jib angle indicators, or boom length indicators.
In this video, a crane operator discusses tips for inspecting wire rope. Very informative (11:17)
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