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Course 820 - Crane and Derrick Safety I

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Wire Rope Inspection, Selection, and Installation

rope
Do you need to inspect all visible rope during the shift inspection?

Wire rope must be inspected as part of the shift, monthly, and annual inspections required by Standard 1412. The shift and monthly inspections must evaluate all visible rope during the shift in which the inspection is conducted. The annual inspection must include the entire length of the rope.

The shift and monthly inspections must pay particular attention to the following:

  • rotation resistant wire rope in use;
  • wire rope being used for boom hoists and luffing hoists, particularly at reverse bends;
  • wire rope at flange points, crossover points, and repetitive pickup points on drums;
  • wire rope at or near terminal ends; and
  • wire rope in contact with saddles, equalizer sheaves, or other sheaves where rope travel is limited.

In addition to these items, the annual inspection must include:

  • those sections normally hidden during shift and monthly inspections,
  • wire rope subject to reverse bends, and
  • wire rope passing over sheaves.

You must take certain action if an inspection reveals a defect in the rope. Some defects require either the rope be removed from service or the damaged section be severed. For others, the inspector must evaluate whether the defect constitutes a safety hazard, with the corrective action depending on the outcome of the evaluation.

Note: if a wire rope must be repaired or replaced, either the equipment (as a whole) or the hoist with that wire rope must be tagged-out during the repair/replacement process.

Severing Wire Rope

rope
There are more than six randomly distributed broken wires in this photo. Do you think this rope should remain in service?

Where severing the rope is permitted, the damaged section must be discarded. Two undamaged sections may not be spliced to make a longer rope. If the remaining undamaged section is too short for the drum to have two full wraps of rope when the load and/or boom is in its lowest position, the rope cannot be used and must be replaced.

Electrical Contact with Power Lines

Wire rope that has made electrical contact with a power line (either by the rope, the equipment or the load contacting the line) must be immediately removed from service, even if no damage is visible. The rope may have suffered internal damage which cannot be repaired.

Defects Requiring Removal From Service or Severing

The following defects require the rope to either be removed from service or the defective part severed.

  • visible broken wires, as follows:
    • running wire ropes: six randomly distributed broken wires in one rope lay, or three broken wires in one strand in one rope lay, where a rope lay is the length along the rope in which one strand makes a complete revolution around the rope;
    • rotation resistant ropes: two randomly distributed broken wires in six rope diameters, or four randomly distributed broken wires in 30 rope diameters;
    • pendants or standing wire ropes: more than two broken wires in one rope lay located in rope beyond end connections, or more than one broken wire in a rope lay located at an end connection;
  • a diameter reduction of more than 5% from nominal diameter;
  • in rotation resistant wire rope, core protrusion or other distortion indicating core failure; and
  • a broken strand.

Exception: If the wire rope manufacturer has approved different criteria for visible broken wires or diameter reduction, you may follow those criteria instead of those above.

Defects Requiring Evaluation

rope
A wire rope must be evaluated when significant distortion, such as birdcaging, is visible.

The following defects must be evaluated by the inspector to determine whether they constitute a safety hazard:

  • significant distortion of the wire rope structure such as kinking, crushing, unstranding, birdcaging, signs of core failure, or steel core protrusion between the outer strands;
  • significant corrosion;
  • electric arc damage (from a source other than power lines) or heat damage;
  • improperly applied end connections; and
  • significantly corroded, cracked, bent, or worn end connections (such as from severe service).

If these defects are found to be hazardous, the rope must be removed from service or the defective part severed.

If they are not found to be an immediate hazard, you may continue to use the rope. However, if such a defect is identified during an annual inspection, you must check it during each monthly inspection. This may require a more complete monthly inspection than would otherwise be required because the annual inspection must cover the entire rope and may reveal a defect in a part of the rope that would not normally be visible during a shift or monthly inspection.

Selection and Installation Criteria

This section requires wire rope be used in accordance with the recommendations of the wire rope manufacturer, the equipment manufacturer, or a qualified person. It establishes a classification system for rotation resistant rope and specifies design factors for the different classes of such rope.

Rope Classification

Wire rope is classified as either "standard rope" or "rotation resistant rope." Rotation resistant rope, in turn, can be constructed in various ways, and the standard lists three different "types" that vary in their construction.

  1. Type I rotation resistant wire rope ("Type I"): Type I rotation resistant rope is stranded rope constructed to have little or no tendency to rotate or, if guided, transmits little or no torque. It has at least 15 outer strands and comprises an assembly of at least three layers of strands laid helically over a center in two operations. The direction of lay of the outer strands is opposite to that of the underlying layer.
  2. Type II rotation resistant wire rope ("Type II"): Type II rotation resistant rope is stranded rope constructed to have significant resistance to rotation. It has at least ten outer strands and comprises an assembly of two or more layers of strands laid helically over a center in two or three operations. The direction of lay of the outer strands is opposite to that of the underlying layer.
  3. Type III rotation resistant wire rope ("Type III"): Type III rotation resistant rope is stranded rope constructed to have limited resistance to rotation. It has no more than nine outer strands and comprises an assembly of two layers of strands laid helically over a center in two operations. The direction of lay of the outer strands is opposite to that of the underlying layer.

For all three types of rotation resistant ropes, internal design resists twisting better than standard rope. Rotation resistant rope, therefore, enables better control of the load because it tends to keep the load from rotating while it is being hoisted or suspended. However, the design of rotation resistant rope makes it more susceptible to internal damage than standard rope, and such internal damage can be hard to detect. Because of the chance of hidden damage, this section restricts the use of rotation resistant rope for boom hoist reeving and duty cycle/repetitive lifts.

Boom Hoist Reeving

duty cycle
You must meet certain criteria when using rotation resistant rope for duty cycle and repetitive lifts.

Rotation resistant rope may only be used for boom hoist reeving when load hoists are used as boom hoists for attachments such as luffing attachments or boom and mast attachment systems. When you use rotation resistant rope for such a purpose, you must comply with six conditions specified in Standard 1414(e)(4)(ii).

Duty cycle/repetitive lifts: You must meet certain criteria when using rotation resistant rope for duty cycle and repetitive lifts. These are defined as follows:

Duty Cycle: A type of crane service in which bulk material is transferred from one point to another by rapidly lifting, swinging, booming, and placing the material. Typical types of duty cycle service are dragline, clamshell, grapple, and magnet. This type of service is differentiated from standard crane "lift service" in that cycle times are very short and continuous. Cycle times are often less than one minute per load, and loads are lifted and placed in general areas rather than precise positions to permit such rapid cycles.

Repetitive lifts: A continuous operation with loads that may vary in size and weight.

The requirements for using rotation resistant rope for duty cycle and repetitive lifts vary with the type of rotation resistant rope being used and the operating design factor of the rope. If you are using rotation resistant rope for one of these purposes, check the standard for the criteria that apply to the type of rope you are using.

Boom Hoist Reeving (Continued)

Section 1414 also contains the following requirements:

  • Wire rope clips used in conjunction with wedge sockets must be attached to the unloaded dead end of the rope only; except that the use of devices specifically designed for dead-ending rope in a wedge socket is permitted.
  • Socketing must be done in the manner specified by the manufacturer of the wire rope or fitting.
  • Prior to cutting a wire rope, seizings must be placed on each side of the point to be cut. The length and number of seizings must be in accord with the wire rope manufacturer's instructions.

Sections 1415 (Safety Devices) & 1416 (Operational Aids)

These sections require cranes/derricks be equipped with certain types of safety equipment. Some types are called safety devices while others are called operational aids. Safety devices must be in proper working order for the equipment to be permitted to operate. If an operational aid is not working properly, the equipment may still be operated for a limited time as long as certain alternative precautions are taken.

Note: Standard 1412 requires safety devices and operational aids to be checked for proper operation during all shift inspections.

Safety devices and operational aids must not be used as a substitute for the exercise of professional judgment by the operator.

Safety Devices

cranes
While repairing an operational aid, if a necessary part is ordered in a timely manner, but is not received within the 7 to 30 day period, is additional time permitted?

The following safety devices are required on all equipment unless otherwise specified:

  • crane level indicator (except on portal cranes, derricks, floating cranes/derricks and land cranes/derricks on barges, pontoons, vessels or other means of flotation),
  • boom stops (except for derricks and hydraulic booms),
  • jib stops (if a jib is attached), except for derricks,
  • locks on foot pedal brakes,
  • integral holding device/check valve on hydraulic outrigger jacks and hydraulic stabilizer jacks,
  • rail clamps and rail stops for equipment on rails (except portal cranes), and
  • horn (both built into or on the equipment and immediately available to the operator).

Operational Aids

These are divided into two categories that differ in the amount of time the equipment may operate before they are repaired. While an operational aid is not working properly, the temporary alternative measures specified in the standard must be taken. Category I aids must be repaired within seven calendar days after a deficiency occurs while equipment may operate for 30 calendar days before a Category II aid is repaired. In both cases, additional time is permitted if, a necessary part is ordered in a timely manner but is not received within the 7- or 30-day period.

Certain operational aids are only required on equipment manufactured after a specified date. In some cases, these are past dates that reflect when these devices began to be installed on equipment. In other cases, they are future dates that are intended to give manufacturers time to install the devices on new equipment.

Category I Operational Aids

  • boom hoist limiting device (required on equipment manufactured after December 16, 1969),
  • buffing jib limiting device,
  • automatic anti two-blocking device (required on telescopic boom cranes manufactured after February 28, 1992; lattice boom cranes manufactured after November 8, 2011; derricks manufactured after November 8, 2011; articulating cranes equipped with a load hoist manufactured after December 31, 1999; digger derricks manufactured after November 8, 2011), and
  • automatic or warning-type anti two-blocking device (required on lattice boom cranes manufactured after February 28, 1992 and before November 8, 2011).

Note: Two-block protection is not required for lattice boom equipment used for dragline, clamshell (grapple), magnet, drop ball, container handling, concrete bucket, marine operations that do not involve hoisting personnel, and pile driving work.

Category II Operational Aids

  • boom angle or radius indicator (required on all equipment, except digger derricks manufactured before November 9, 2010),
  • jib angle indicator if the equipment has a luffing jib,
  • boom length indicator if the equipment has a telescopic boom (unless the rated capacity is independent of the boom length),
  • load weighing and similar devices (required on equipment (other than derricks, articulating cranes, and digger derricks manufactured before November 8, 2011) manufactured after March 29, 2003 with a rated capacity more than 6,000 pounds),
  • automatic overload prevention device, load weighing device, load moment (or rated capacity) indicator, or load moment (rated capacity) limiter (required on articulating cranes manufactured after November 8, 2011),
  • outrigger/stabilizer position (horizontal beam extension) sensor/monitor if the equipment has outriggers or stabilizers (required on equipment manufactured after November 8, 2011), and
  • hoist drum rotation indicator if the equipment has a hoist drum not visible from the operator's station (required on equipment manufactured after November 8, 2011).

Note: Articulating cranes need not be equipped with boom angle or radius indicators, jib angle indicators, or boom length indicators.

Video

MOBILE CRANE SAFETY - Department of Defense 2003 - TO INCREASE MOBILE CRANE SAFETY AWARENESS

Instructions

Before beginning this quiz, we highly recommend you review the module material. This quiz is designed to allow you to self-check your comprehension of the module content, but only focuses on key concepts and ideas.

Read each question carefully. Select the best answer, even if more than one answer seems possible. When done, click on the "Get Quiz Answers" button. If you do not answer all the questions, you will receive an error message.

Good luck!

1. While conducting shift and monthly inspections you must evaluate all rope that is _____.

2. If a wire rope must be repaired or replaced, either the equipment (as a whole) or the hoist with that wire rope must be _____ during the repair/replacement process.

3. Wire rope that has made electrical contact with a power line (either by the rope, the equipment or the load contacting the line) must be immediately _____.

4. Which of the following defects must be evaluated by the inspector to determine whether they constitute a safety hazard?

5. If wire rope defects are found through evaluation to be _____, the rope must be removed from service or the defective part severed.


Have a great day!

Important! You will receive an "error" message unless all questions are answered.