As part of the deployment process, it's important to make sure the CSMS is working effectively. To do that conduct regular worksite analyses to analyze and evaluate the performance (results). Conduct systematic actions that provide information as needed to recognize and understand the hazards that exist and work practices used on each worksite.
Listed below are types of worksite analysis actions that can assist you with making an inventory of potential and actual hazards in your worksite:
OSHAcademy courses 702, 704, 706, 707, 709, 710, and 711 cover these topic areas.
Each of the following program components should be analyzed on the worksite. Use a checklist to help make sure your analysis is efficient and accurately identifies hazards. Be sure to document what you find whether it is in conformance or not.
In conducting the worksite analysis, it’s important to look for hazards that are generally recognized within the industry, and those hazards that should be foreseeable on the worksite.
As described in OSHA's Field Operations Manual, recognition of a hazard is established on the basis of industry recognition, employer recognition, or "common sense" recognition criteria.
An important, and potentially difficult, question to ask about the nature of worksite hazards relates to whether they are "foreseeable." The question of foreseeability should be addressed by safety managers during the worksite analysis. A hazard for which OSHA issues a citation must be reasonably foreseeable. However, all the factors which could cause a hazard need not be present in the same place at the same time in order to prove foreseeability of the hazard.
Example: If sufficient quantities of combustible gas and oxygen are present in a confined area to cause an explosion if ignited, but no ignition source is present or could be present, no OSHA duty clause Section 5(a)(1) violation would exist. However, if the employer has not taken sufficient safety precautions to preclude the presence or use of ignition sources in the confined area, then a foreseeable hazard may exist. NOTE: It is necessary to establish the reasonable foreseeability of the workplace hazard, rather than the particular circumstances that led to an accident/incident. (Source: FOM)
Designate a competent person to analyze new equipment, processes, procedures and materials on the worksite for hazards and potential hazards at your companies work sites. Document the findings and develop plans to minimize or design out the hazards using the "hierarchy of control" strategies. (More on the HOC in the next module.)
A Job Hazard/Safety Analysis (JSA) should be used to determine potential hazards and identify methods to reduce exposure to the hazards at your work sites. (See Course 706, Job Hazard Analysis, for more on this topic).
Job Safety Analysis is a method of planning for safety. There are three basic parts to a JSA.
Note: Job Hazard Analysis is often called different things. Other names for it include: job hazard analysis, job task analysis, task hazard analysis, safe work procedure, and safety task analysis.
Employees play a key role in identifying, controlling, and reporting hazards that may occur or already exist in your worksite. Employee reports of potential hazards can be an effective tool to trigger a closer look at a piece of equipment, operation, or how work is being performed. Reports of potential hazards can also provide suggestions to eliminate a hazard. They can also help to determine if any trends in hazardous conditions or unsafe behaviors exist.
An informal observation process is nothing more than being watchful for hazards and unsafe behaviors throughout the work shift. No special procedure is involved. All employees should be expected to look over their work areas once in a while.
One of the most effective proactive methods to collect useful data about the hazards and unsafe behaviors at the worksite is the formal observation program because it includes a written plan and procedures.
For example, safety committee members or other employees may be assigned to complete a minimum number of observations of safe/unsafe behaviors during a given period of time. This data is gathered and analyzed to produce graphs and charts reflecting the current status and trends in employee behaviors.
Posting the results of these observations tends to increase awareness and lower injury rates. But, more importantly, the data gives valuable clues about safety management system weaknesses.
Observation is important because it can be a great tool to effectively identify behaviors that account for fully 95 percent of all worksite injuries. The walkaround inspection, as a method for identifying hazards, may not be as effective as observation in identifying unsafe behaviors.
Inspections are the best understood and most frequently used tool to assess the worksite for hazards. Much has been written about them, and many inspection checklists are available in various OSHA publications. The term "inspection" means a general walkaround examination of every part of the worksite to locate conditions that do not comply with safety standards. This includes routine industrial hygiene monitoring and sampling.
The regular site inspection should be done at specified intervals. The employer should inspect as often as the type of operation or character of equipment requires.
The inspection team can document in writing the location and identity of the hazards and make recommendations to the employer regarding correction of the hazards. Regular inspections of satellite locations should be conducted by the committee team or by a person designated at the location.
The frequency of a safety inspection depends on the nature of the work being performed and the worksite. More frequent change and higher probability for serious injury or illness require more frequent inspections. For construction sites, daily inspections are a must because of the rapidly changing nature of the site and its hazards.
At small fixed worksites, the entire site should be inspected at one time. And even for the smallest worksite, inspections should be done at least quarterly. If the small worksite uses hazardous materials or involves hazardous procedures or conditions that change frequently, inspections should be done more often.
Your company should conduct an investigation for all injury accidents, property-damage incidents and non-injury near misses. Be sure to adequately document all reports. Only those who are properly trained and trusted should conduct investigations involving injury or property damage.
The primary goal of conducting an investigation is to determine the "root cause(s)," or system weakness in the "6-Ps" of the CSMS: plans, programs, policies, processes, procedures and practices. Uncovering the root causes will best help to prevent the risk of future incidents and accidents on the worksite.
Investigation reports should help determine injury and illness trends over time, so that patterns with common root causes can be identified and prevented. Investigations should not place blame.
Accidents and "near-miss" incidents should be investigated by qualified and trained persons in your company. It's important that the person also be one who is trusted by employees. The reports should be reviewed by the executive in charge your company (or the person in your company that has the power and ability to address the findings of the report) and the Safety Committee within a specified amount of time after an accident/incident. (More on this topic in course 702, Effective Accident Investigation).
Listen to this interesting podcast on worksite safety analysis by Blaine Hoffman while you're taking the rest of the course. You can find many more free podcasts like this and books too, at SafetyPro.
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