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Course 900 - Oil and Gas Safety Management

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Safety guides and audits to make your job as a safety professional easier

Education and Training

engineering control
Participants receive an overview of a drilling rig.
(Click to Enlarge)

Introduction

Safety training should be a part of every employee’s basic job training. This reinforces the belief that safety is an essential part of the job. By focusing on job training needs, you will identify safety training needs. You want your employees to learn what they need to know to perform their jobs.

The Importance of Training

Accidents will be reduced when people who work on well sites are selected properly, oriented well, completely trained, retrained when necessary, always motivated and retained to become the best career oil field staff.

Selection - Selecting properly from a more qualified pool of applicants will begin to occur when escalation of activity in the industry decreases, or levels out, or when better retention of workers reduces the need for constant replacements. At the present time manpower needs are so urgent that normal selection procedures are often by-passed.

Orientation - Orientation would be improved by the industry cooperating with educational institutions in providing information and courses to prospective employees about opportunities in the oil fields. Recruitment should include exposure to packaged audio visual orientation material that would take the surprise out of first days on the job.

Training – Worker training must compensate for lack of experience when new employees, because of necessity, are promoted rapidly. The industry will be challenged to research best methods and to implement excellent programs.

The Importance of Training (Continued)

training

Retraining – Remaining aware of danger, as familiarity kills caution, requires constant retraining in a variety of ways in order to retain interest. This constitutes another developmental thrust for training institutions and personnel.

Motivation – Worker motivation to work safely and to stay with the industry must come from the companies. The opportunity to be employed year around, developing pride in working for a good company, experiencing satisfaction with job conditions, knowing that the work is meaningful and being rewarded generously should lessen the movement of workers through the industry. It will assist in raising public opinions about oil field work to the status of a respected career. This should reduce the number of workers who say they are in it for the money only.

When initially employed, a worker should receive instruction and training pertinent to the hazards, safety precautions, safe work practices, and use of personal protective equipment applicable to the type of work performed.

The instructions should adequately orient and alert the new employee to:

  1. the basic principles of a well drilling operation, including the safe work practices and hazards associated with rig equipment
  2. the purpose and operation of blowout prevention
  3. hydrogen sulfide and respiratory protection
  4. fire prevention and control
  5. confined spaces and entry procedures
  6. personal protective equipment
  7. emergency procedures

The Importance of Training (Continued)

Each new employee should receive training in the safe use of all equipment or tools that are necessary for use and the safe performance of assigned tasks. The employer should require that the worker demonstrate his ability to safely operate the tool or equipment prior to using it in a drilling situation.

As an employee advances to new positions and tasks, he should demonstrate his knowledge and ability to safely operate the equipment and perform the tasks before he is required to perform them in a drilling situation.

Retraining should be conducted as needed to ensure that employees are able to perform their tasks in a safe manner.

Implementing Education and Training

The company should provide safety information and training to assure the requirements of OSHA standards are met and it should continuously evaluate employee training needs to keep workers safe and healthy on the job.

Implementing Education and Training (Continued)

  1. New Employee Orientation: New employees should receive training on your company’s safety and health management system, safe work practices and expectations, and specific safety and health training for the tasks that they will perform.
  2. When initially employed, a worker should receive instruction and training pertinent to the hazards, safety precautions, safe work practices, and use of personal protective equipment applicable to the type of work performed.
  3. The instructions should adequately orient and alert the new employee to:
    • the basic principles of a well drilling operation, including the safe work practices and hazards associated with rig equipment
    • the purpose and operation of blowout prevention
    • hydrogen sulfide and respiratory protection
    • fire prevention and control
    • confined spaces and entry procedures
    • personal protective equipment
    • emergency procedures
    • the safe use of all equipment or tools that are necessary for use and the safe performance of assigned tasks

Implementing Education and Training (Continued)

  1. As an employee advances to new positions and tasks, he should demonstrate his knowledge and ability to safely operate the equipment and perform the tasks before he is required to perform them in a drilling situation.
  2. After inspecting a job site, a designated person should identify and evaluate all potential hazards that may cause serious injuries and increase the probability of an accident. Actions will be taken to minimize the hazards and protect the workers.
  3. The Safety Coordinator or other designated site safety person will appraise the skill and knowledge level of exposed workers, and provide any needed training.
  4. Where safety and health training is needed, appropriate training should be provided.
    • Hazards must be identified.
    • Necessary precautions will be explained.
    • Training length and level of detail should be determined by the severity of the hazards and the requirements of OSHA.
  1. Records should be maintained for all training sessions with descriptions of topics covered and names of workers trained.
  2. Toolbox Talks: Toolbox talks should be conducted regularly (weekly or daily). Topics covered should include:
    • safe work practices necessary for that day’s work
    • Any safety concerns workers may have
    • Brief refresher training on relevant safety topics (topics to be provided by the Safety Coordinator)

Conducting Classroom and On-The-Job Training

classroom training

Training Development Process: The Texas Department of Insurance Division of Workers' Compensation Workplace Safety (www.tdi.state.tx.us) has a seven-step classroom training development process that can be quite effective in conducting classroom training for oil and gas companies.

Step #1 - Determine Training Needs

Training does not solve all problems. Sometimes the problem may be work procedures, equipment, or lack of employee motivation. Ask yourself:

“Does the employee have the skills or knowledge to perform the job?”

  • If the answer is “yes”, then safety training may not be required
  • If the answer is “no”, then safety training will be required.

Safety training may be required for any of the following reasons:

  • initial orientation
  • employee’s lack of knowledge
  • employee’s lack of skills
  • new machinery or equipment
  • new procedures or job change

All new employees need to participate in an overall safety training orientation class. Every employee must be trained to be aware of and understand the hazards in the workplace.

Finally, dangerous work practices may exist on the job. After you have determined that training will correct the problems and/or meet the legally mandated training requirements, the next step is to identify the training needs.

Step #2 - Identify Training Needs

The purpose of training is to ensure that the employee will be able to perform the job correctly and safely. Some questions to help identify training needs are:

  • Does the employee have previous experience?
  • Does the employee know how to perform the tasks?
  • Does the employee possess the skills to perform the tasks?

Once these questions have been answered, you can look at additional information to help identify specific training that needs to be done. Information to look at includes:

  • accident and injury records
  • incident and near miss reports
  • audits and inspections
  • observing employees while working
  • safety meetings
  • suggestions from employees
  • job hazard analysis and developed solutions for the hazards (this is a very valuable tool to identify training needs)

Step #3 - Identify Learning Goals and Objectives

After determining training needs, it is time to identify your goals and objectives. When developing your learning goals and objectives, you should know exactly what you expect your employees to know and do to:

  • perform their tasks
  • improve their performance
  • improve their behavior

Goals are merely statements describing a general end-state result such as:

  • Increase our safety training
  • Have fewer accidents

On the other hand, an operational learning objective is an outcome statement that captures specifically what knowledge, skills, attitudes learners (not trainers) should be able to demonstrate following the training. To successfully achieve desired training goals, learning objectives need to be well thought out and planned. Operational learning objectives should include the following components:

  1. specific
  2. attainable
  3. measurable/observable
  4. results-oriented
  5. targeted

Here are two examples of learning objectives for safety training:

  • At the end of the training session today, given a full body harness, each student will be able to correctly inspect and identify at least two defects in the equipment.
  • By the end of training, given a 10-question written exam on oil and gas electrical safety, each student will be able to correctly answer at least 8 questions.

As you can see, operational objectives are much more specific and detailed than mere safety goals.

Step #4 - Develop Learning Activities

You must decide what types of activities you’re going to use to train your employees. How are you going to get across to them the skills and knowledge they need? Different people require different types of training; some visual, some hands-on, etc. However, you must remember to use activities that will allow your employees to reach the goals and objectives.

Prepare your training materials and aids after deciding on the learning activities. Arrange objectives and activities in the sequence that corresponds to the tasks actually performed on the job, and if possible, use hands-on demonstrations. Employees will retain training information if it is related to their job tasks.

Step #5 - Conduct the Training

The actual training is crucial for the overall safety training process to be successful. Begin your training with a short review of the key training subjects and activities. After each objective is taught, draw a relationship between the employee’s goals, interests, and experiences to the objective. Reinforce what the employee has learned by summarizing objectives and key points.

An effective training program requires employees to participate in the training process and to practice their new skills and knowledge in a safe environment.

Step #6 - Evaluate the Program

When you develop the objectives and contents of your training program, you will also develop a policy on how the training activities will be evaluated and the requirements for success.

A training program is successful only if workers learn from it, accomplish the established objectives and reach the goals. Without evaluation, you will never know.

Your evaluation can include:

  • student opinion
  • supervisors’ observations (both before and after training)
  • workplace improvements

Step #7 - Program Improvement

You can use the information from Step #6 to improve your training program. Training program revisions and improvements can be made based on the evaluation results.

Remember, OSHA mandates training in a number of the federal standards. By following these outlined steps, being prepared, presenting your program with enthusiasm, sincerity, and careful evaluation, you will promote safe work habits in your workplace.

A Simple Seven Step On-The-Job Training (OJT) Process

Safety training should be simple training. It should be done where the task is performed, and hopefully the supervisor is conducting the training. Here is a seven-step OJT training process that helps to ensure new employees don't get hurt while being trained. Now I know that might sound funny, but it happens regularly.

Step 1- Introduction: State and discuss the learning objectives and answer any questions the employee may have. Discuss the acceptable standards of knowledge and performance. Tell the trainee what you're going to train. Emphasize the importance of the procedure to the success of the production/service goals.

Step 2- Trainer shows and tells: In this step the trainee becomes familiar with each work practice and why it is important. Review the initial conditions for the procedure. Demonstrate the process, carefully explaining each step as you go. Answer questions and continue to demonstrate and explain until the employee understands what to do, when and why to do it, and how to do it.

A Simple Seven Step On-The-Job Training (OJT) Process (Continued)

Step 3- Learner tells - Trainer shows: This step is necessary when exposure to hazards inherent in the procedure could cause serious harm. It protects the trainee because the trainer performs the procedure. The trainee explains the procedure to the trainer, while the trainer does it.

Step 4: Learner shows and tells: The trainer has the trainee do it. The trainee explains the step, gets permission to perform the step and then carries out the step. This step is very important when training tasks that might result in serious physical injury or death if not performed correctly.

Step 5- Conclusion: Recognize accomplishment: "Good job!” Reemphasize the importance of the procedure and how it fits into the overall process. Tie the training again to accountability by discussing the natural and system consequences of performance.

Step 6- Document: Training documentation should be more than an attendance sheet. See the sample training certification document on the next page. It represents one possible way to document training.

Step 7- Validate: At some point in time after the conclusion of the OJT session, observe and question the employee to validate that the training has been successful and that the employee has developed a proper attitude related to the work.

You can learn more about how to conduct a JHA in OSHAcademy Course 706.

Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines (OSHA's Training Requirements Guide) -Here's a great booklet that covers many OSHA training requirements and also gives you some ideas on training strategies.

Safety and Health Work Observations

Safety and health work observations should be performed periodically by supervisors or designated observers. Observations may be conducted randomly in an informal program, or they may be planned when a formal observations program (Behavior Based Safety Program) is part of the SMS.

Safety and health work observations ensure:

Electrical safety in oil and gas involves two primary issues:

  • an employee has the knowledge to perform the work as trained
  • the employee is actually performing their work task safely

Specific observations or audits are especially critical for lockout/tagout, confined space, fall protection and other programs where the risk of exposure to hazards is high. Results should be documented and follow-up training should be provided as needed. This process helps assure safety and health training is effective.

To learn more about safety education and training, be sure to complete OSHAcademy Courses 703, 721, and 723.

Here is a sample training certification.

Video

Instructions

Before beginning this quiz, we highly recommend you review the module material. This quiz is designed to allow you to self-check your comprehension of the module content, but only focuses on key concepts and ideas.

Read each question carefully. Select the best answer, even if more than one answer seems possible. When done, click on the "Get Quiz Answers" button. If you do not answer all the questions, you will receive an error message.

Good luck!

1. If a rig worker has the skills and knowledge to perform their job safely, safety training _____.

2. Safety training may be required for any of the following reasons, except _____.

3. Each of the following questions should be asked when determining training needs, except _____

4. When developing your learning goals and objectives, you should know _____.

5. An effective training program _____ employees to practice their new skills and knowledge in a safe environment.


Have a great day!

Important! You will receive an "error" message unless all questions are answered.