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Course 903 - Well Site Completion and Servicing Safety

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wire line

Special Services Operations Safety

Introduction

Special services are operations that use specialized equipment and workers who perform support well drilling and servicing operations.

Coordination between all personnel is critical for site safety. Therefore, all special services operations should conduct a pre-job safety meeting to include all personnel on the job site.

Wireline Operations

A wireline is a slender, rod-like or threadlike piece of metal, usually small in diameter, which is used for lowering special tools (such as logging sondes, perforating guns, and so forth) into the well. It is also called slick line.

All wireline operations require special precautions. Wireline operations may include slick line and electric line operations. Operations completed through the use of wireline include logging, perforating, setting of downhole tools, fishing, bailing, and swabbing.

Wireline Operations (Continued)

The special service supervisor should hold a pre-job meeting with the special service crew and other involved personnel to review responsibilities and to coordinate the operations to be performed.

Potential Hazards:

  • being struck by wireline due to line failure
  • being struck by wireline, lubricator, sheaves, or other equipment
  • getting caught in wireline
  • pinching hands and fingers
  • getting sprains, strains or suffering from overexertion
  • falling from a height
  • receiving burns or being exposed to a respiratory hazard due to a fire
  • being exposed to an unexpected release of pressure
  • toppling mast or boom

Possible Solutions:

  • Keep all non-essential workers out of the immediate work area.
  • Inspect wireline, rope sockets, and cable heads for defects before use.
  • Operate the wireline at a safe speed.
  • Use an appropriate method to determine the end of line location.
  • Inspect all slings, chains, pins or other attachment devices before lifting or suspending tools or equipment.
  • Minimize manual handling of lubricators and other equipment.
  • Use proper hand placement and tag lines to avoid pinch points.
  • Use proper fall protection.
  • Position the unit properly with respect to wind direction and distance from potential gas or vapor sources.
  • Install a pressure release valve in the lubricator sub.
  • Bleed pressure from lubricator sub before breaking connections.
  • Check for an unusually tight connection that may indicate that pressure has not been released.
  • Install foundation, outriggers, and guying according to the manufacturer's recommendations.

Well Logging

Well logging is the recording of information about subsurface geologic formations, including records kept by the driller and records of mud and cutting analyses, core analysis, drill stem tests, and electric, acoustic, and radioactivity procedures.

The purpose of well logging is to identify formation and other downhole properties of the well bore.

Well logging tools can include radioactive, electric, mechanical, and sonic tools, among others.

Potential Hazards:

  • being exposed to radiation
  • getting injured due to an unexpected release of pressure

Possible Solutions:

  • Keep non-essential workers away from the rig floor and marked-off areas where radiation hazards may be present.
  • Wear appropriate personnel protective equipment (PPE).
  • Allow only authorized and qualified logging company personnel to handle the logging tools.
  • Report any damage to radioactive logging tools.
  • Check for the presence of trapped pressure before opening the tool housing.

Perforating

perforationcasing

On a well site, to perforate means to pierce the casing wall and cement of a wellbore to:

  • provide holes through which formation fluids may enter, or
  • to provide holes in the casing so that materials may be introduced into the annulus between the casing and the wall of the borehole.

Perforating is accomplished by lowering a perforating gun, or perforator into the well.

A specialized crew transports and operates the perforating equipment. Upon arrival to the site, the tools are assembled, then lowered into the well by a wireline unit or conveyed by tubing. Then, the perforating gun shoots small holes using shaped charges or bullets into the casing of the producing zone.

The perforations allow the oil or gas to flow into the casing or liner. If pressure is sufficient, the oil or gas will rise to the surface.

perforationcasing

Perforating (Continued)

Detailed operational procedures and trained personnel are necessary for the safe handling of explosives. The solutions below illustrate possible solutions.

Potential Hazards:

  • surface detonation of explosives

Possible Solutions:

  • Keep all non-essential personnel out of the immediate work area.
  • Post warning signs and prohibit the use of radios, telephones, or navigational systems.
  • Shut down non-essential electrical systems during gun-arming operations.
  • Perform operations involving explosives under the direct supervision of the special services supervisor.
  • Report any suspected remnants of explosives to the special services supervisor.

Cementing

Cementing is the application of a liquid slurry of cement and water to various points inside or outside the casing.

Cementing and pumping operations may be performed by specialized pumping services or in conjunction with well servicing operations (such as, casing, squeezing, and zone isolations).

The hazards involved will vary with mode of dry cement delivery and mixing as well as the primary designed function of the pumping equipment.

Rig Up

This phase of the cementing process includes spotting and the assembly of equipment to perform cementing or pumping operations.

Potential Hazards:

  • being struck by moving vehicles
  • being exposed to potential ignition and respiratory hazards
  • overexerting, or getting sprains and strains
  • being exposed to pinch points (for example, hammer union wings and hammers, pump iron and racks)
  • being hit by flying particles
  • slips, trips, and falls
  • being struck by falling equipment

Possible Solutions:

  • Preplan equipment locations and use a spotter(s) to position equipment out of fall lane of the derrick and upwind of vapor and gas sources.
  • Use mechanical lifting aids, proper lifting techniques, and team lifting where appropriate.
  • Use proper hand and body positioning.
  • Wear proper PPE including fall protection and respiratory protection where appropriate.
  • Conduct a pre-job inspection to identify, then eliminate or correct hazardous work surfaces.
  • Require all non-essential personnel to stand clear.
  • Secure all elevated lines.

Pumping

In this phase of the cementing process, a high-pressure pump is used to force cement down the casing and into the annular space between the casing and the wall of the borehole.

Potential Hazards:

  • being struck by high-pressure lines or unexpected release of pressure (due to, mismatched or excessively worn hammer unions, line failure)
  • being exposed to chemical hazards (such as, silica, toxic liquids, and gases)
  • being exposed to high noise levels
  • slips, trips, and falls
  • overexerting, or receiving sprains and strains while handling materials (such as sacks and buckets)

Possible Solutions:

  • Direct all non-essential personnel to stand clear.
  • Require pump operator to stay by the controls.
  • Conduct adequate pressure tests on pump(s) and lines before pumping.
  • Hobble high-pressure lines properly.
  • Use proper equipment inspection techniques to include hammer unions.
  • Wear proper personal protective equipment (for example, respiratory, skin, and hearing) as appropriate for the hazards present.
  • Conduct a pre-job inspection to identify, then eliminate or correct hazardous work surfaces.
  • Use mechanical lifting aids, proper lifting techniques, and team lifting where appropriate.

Rig Down

During the rig down phase of the cementing operations process, the crew dismantles the equipment. The hazards are similar to the rig up phase.

Potential Hazards:

  • being struck by moving vehicles
  • being exposed to potential ignition and respiratory hazards
  • overexerting or receiving sprains and strains
  • being exposed to pinch points (such as, hammer union wings and hammers, pump iron and racks)
  • being hit by flying particles
  • slips, trips, and falls
  • being struck by falling equipment

Possible Solutions:

  • Use a spotters when moving equipment.
  • Use mechanical lifting aids, proper lifting techniques, and team lifting where appropriate.
  • Use proper hand and body positioning.
  • Wear proper PPE including fall protection and respiratory protection where appropriate.
  • Conduct a post-job inspection to identify, then eliminate or correct hazardous work surfaces.
  • Require all non-essential personnel to stand clear.

Video

Instructions

Before beginning this quiz, we highly recommend you review the module material. This quiz is designed to allow you to self-check your comprehension of the module content, but only focuses on key concepts and ideas.

Read each question carefully. Select the best answer, even if more than one answer seems possible. When done, click on the "Get Quiz Answers" button. If you do not answer all the questions, you will receive an error message.

Good luck!

1. All special services operations supervisors should conduct a _____ to include all personnel on the job site.

2. The hazards associated specifically with wireline operations on a well site include all of the following, except _____.

3. The hazards associated specifically with the rig up phase prior to cementing operations on a well site include all of the following, except _____.

4. During which phase of the cementing operations process, does the crew dismantle the equipment?

5. Which of the following is a special services operation using radioactive, electric, mechanical, and sonic tools, to identify formation and other downhole properties of the well bore?


Have a great day!

Important! You will receive an "error" message unless all questions are answered.