Cleanup operations may expose workers to one or more of the following toxic components:
The following are some components of nitrogen dioxide:
Exposure limits regulated by OSHA and other agencies for NO2 range from 1-5 part-per-million (ppm) for a short 15 minute exposure period and 3-5 ppm average over a longer 8-hour exposure period.
NOTE: Workers should be informed that OELs based on standard times are not appropriate for monitoring. OELs do not include skin contact, absorption and ingestion which are common in cleanups.
Check with your site supervisor for additional guidance!
There are several health risks of Sulfur Dioxide. Here are a few:
EPA set a 24-hour primary standard at 140 parts-per-billion (ppb) and an annual average standard at 30 ppb, and set a 3-hour average secondary standard at 500 ppb.
Amounts above 5,000 ppm are considered very unhealthy, and those above about 50,000 ppm (equal to 5% by volume) are considered dangerous.
Carbon Monoxide has no warning properties; it is a colorless and odorless gas!
Carbon Monoxide may be present with:
There are several things you can do to control exposure to carbon monoxide. Here are a few:
Symptoms include: Headache, dizziness, drowsiness, or nausea progressing to vomiting, loss of consciousness. Prolonged or high exposure can lead to coma or death. If you experience any of these symptoms where CO may be present: LEAVE THE AREA IMMEDIATELY.
|Hazardous Chemicals||Adverse Health Effects|
|Benzene (crude oils high in BTEX, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene)||Irritation to eyes, skin, and respiratory system, dizziness, rapid heart rate, headaches, tremors, confusion, unconsciousness, anemia, cancer|
|Benzo(a)pyrene (a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon reproductive [see below], formed when oil or gasoline burns)||Irritation to eyes and skin, cancer|
|Carbon dioxide (inerting atmosphere, byproduct of combustion)||Dizziness, headaches, elevated blood pressure, rapid heart rate, loss of consciousness asphyxiation, coma|
|Carbon monoxide (byproduct of combustion)||Irritation to eyes, skin, and respiratory, dizziness, confusion, headaches, nausea, weakness, loss of consciousness, asphyxiation, coma|
|Ethyl benzene (high in gasoline)||Irritation to eyes, skin, and respiratory system, loss of consciousness, asphyxiation, nervous system effects|
|Hydrogen sulfide (oils high in sulfur, decaying plants and animals)||Irritation to eyes, skin, and respiratory system, dizziness, drowsiness, cough, headaches, nervous system effects|
|Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) (octane booster and clean air additive for gasoline, or pure MTBE)||Irritation to eyes, skin, and respiratory system, headaches, nausea, dizziness, confusion, fatigue, weakness, nervous system, liver, and kidney|
|Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (occur in crude oil, and formed during burning of oil)||Irritation to eyes and skin, cancer, possible reproductive effects, immune system effects|
|Sulfuric acid (byproduct of combustion of sour petroleum product)||Irritation to eyes, skin, teeth, and upper respiratory system, severe tissue burns, cancer|
|Toluene (high BTEX crude oils)||Irritation to eyes, skin, respiratory system, fatigue, confusion, dizziness, headaches, memory loss, nausea, nervous system, liver, and kidney effects|
|Xylenes (high BTEX crude oils)||Irritation to eyes, skin, respiratory system, dizziness, confusion, change in sense of balance, nervous system gastrointestinal system, liver, kidney, and blood effects|
Before beginning this quiz, we highly recommend you review the module material. This quiz is designed to allow you to self-check your comprehension of the module content, but only focuses on key concepts and ideas.
Read each question carefully. Select the best answer, even if more than one answer seems possible. When done, click on the "Get Quiz Answers" button. If you do not answer all the questions, you will receive an error message.