Resources - Education and Training

Improving the Training

Continuous Improvement is the Goal

There's always room for continuous improvement in any training program. However, if your evaluation indicates the training program is effective in content, presentation and testing, yet employees are not following the procedures and practices they learned in training, it's likely the culture that supports the training that may need improvement. In any case, continuous improvement in training, resources, enforcement, and/or supervision may be required when employees are not complying with safety policies and rules.

Ultimately, improving safety training is all about change management. Effective change management is crucial to long term success. We'll take a look at one proven change model that can be applied to safety training.

When Training Needs Improvement

If, after evaluation, it is clear that the training did not give the employees the level of knowledge and skill that was expected, then it may be necessary to revise the training program or provide periodic retraining. At this point, asking questions of employees and of those who conducted the training may be of some help. Among the questions that could be asked are:

  1. Were parts of the content already known and, therefore, unnecessary?
  2. What material was confusing or distracting?
  3. Was anything missing from the program?
  4. What did the employees learn, and what did they fail to learn?

It may be necessary to repeat steps in the training process, that is, to return to the first steps and retrace one's way through the training process. As the program is evaluated, the you should ask:

  • If a job analysis was conducted, was it accurate?
  • Was any critical feature of the job overlooked?
  • Were the important gaps in knowledge and skill included?
  • Was material already known by the employees intentionally omitted?
  • Were the instructional objectives presented clearly and concretely?
  • Did the objectives state the level of acceptable performance that was expected of employees?
  • Did the learning activity simulate the actual job?
  • Was the learning activity appropriate for the kinds of knowledge and skills required on the job?
  • When the training was presented, was the organization of the material and its meaning made clear?
  • Were the employees motivated to learn?
  • Were the employees allowed to participate actively in the training process?
  • Was the employer’s evaluation of the program thorough?

The Deming Plan, Do, Study, Act Cycle

After asking the questions above, you may discover that one or more improvements to your training program is necessary, it's important to carefully develop and implement the change through effective change management principles. One simple change management technique is to use the Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) Cycle, used by W. Edwards Deming, the father of total quality management, to transform the industrial of Japan after World War II. He promoted the PDSA Cycle that was partly responsible for Japan's meteoric rise in manufacturing. He believed that statistics hold the key to improving processes, and that management must take responsibility for quality in the workplace because management controls the processes.

Step 1: Plan – Design the change or test. Take time to thoroughly plan the proposed change in the training program before it’s implemented. Step 2: Do - Carry out the change or test. Implement the change or test it on a small scale.
Step 4: Act – Adopt, abandon, or repeat the cycle. Incorporate what works into the system. Ask not only if we’re doing the right things, but ask if we’re doing things right. Step 3: Study – Examine the effects or results of the change or test. To determine what was learned: what went right or wrong. Statistical process analysis, surveys, questionnaires, interviews.

Step 1: Plan - Design the change or test

Any change must be carefully planned to reduce the likelihood that unwanted results occur. We want plans to work. They're less likely to work if not carefully planned, but rather built on hunches.

The purpose of this important first step is to:

  • Take the necessary time to thoroughly understand the process.
  • Explore the changes that might improve the training process.
  • Identify the factors that influence the process.
  • Plan the change in the training program before it’s implemented.
  • Pinpoint specific conditions, behaviors, results you expect to see as a result of the change.
  • Plan to ensure successful transition (instructors, supervisors) as well as change.

Step 2: Do - Carry out the change or test

The purpose of this step is to formally implement the change or test. It's important that the test be conducted on a small scale to limit the number of variables involved. If the change is too large, and something doesn't work, you may not be able to pinpoint the variables that caused the unexpected results. If unexpected results occur, limiting the scope will reduce the negative impact of the change.

Step 3: Study - Examine the effects or results of the change or test

The purpose of this step is to record and study the effects of the change or test. We want to determine what was learned: what went right or wrong. Statistical process analysis, surveys, questionnaires, interviews and other techniques are important in studying the effects the change had on the quality of training.

Step 4: Act - Adopt, abandon, or repeat the cycle

The purpose of this step is to incorporate what works into the system and toss what doesn't. We need to ask not only if we're doing the right things, but ask if we're doing things right. And, are we doing it for the right reason. If we find we're doing the right things, the right way, for the right reasons, we're on the right track. If the result of the change was not as intended, abandon the change or adjust/revise the cycle again with the new knowledge gained.

Effective Change Requires Successful Transition

Implementing change in training requires changes in processes, procedures, policies, and ultimately corporate culture. As a result, it's important understand the dynamics of change and transition. William Bridges, author of Managing Transitions: Making the Most of Change emphasizes that for change to be effective, employees must successfully transition.

Change is external

The origin of change is external, usually viewed as an imposition, and can be quite scary. Change of any kind may actually be threatening to an employee. Change may require new expectations in expertise, knowledge and skills. New expectations make anyone nervous. To one degree or other, we all worry that we may not be able to meet those new expectations. To overcome the fear of the new "unknown" it's important that we successfully transition.

Transition is internal

For change to be successful, employees must transition internally to the new way of doing things. There must be a change in internal thinking as well as external action. It's important during this period of increased anxiety and confusion to communicate often with employees so they understand why the change is necessary. Employees must let go of the past, adapt, and accept what is new.

So what's the bottom line when it comes to change. Make sure you communicate the benefits of a change in the training program is important. Don't just assume that the change has happened once it has been implemented.

Source: OSHAcademy

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Copyright ©2000-2016 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. All rights reserved. Federal copyright prohibits unauthorized reproduction by any means without permission. Students may reproduce materials for personal study. Disclaimer: This material is for training purposes only to inform the reader of occupational safety and health best practices and general compliance requirement and is not a substitute for provisions of the OSH Act of 1970 or any governmental regulatory agency. CertiSafety is a division of Geigle Safety Group, Inc., and is not connected or affiliated with the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL), or the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).