A contemporary of Deming, and a second great contributor to the success of Japan’s management revolution of the 40’s and 50’s, he viewed quality problems an 80% result of weaknesses in the management system; 20% attributable to workers, and would have, no doubt, had the same opinion about the causes of workplace injuries and illness. (Actually, safety gurus such as Dan Peterson and Jerald Geller claim that the percentages are closer to 95% systemic weaknesses to 5% worker unsafe acts).
Like Deming, he admonished managers to avoid campaigns and slogans to motivate the workforce to solve the company’s quality problems. This argument parallels Larry Hansen’s finding that truly “world-class safety cultures” do not rely on slogans and loud, gimmicky safety program campaigns. He favored the use of quality circles because they improved communications between management and labor, and would have surely improved of the idea of management-labor safety committees which have been established for the same purpose.
He argued that, “When it comes to quality, there is no such thing as improvement in general. Any improvement in quality is going to come about project by project and no other way.” This parallels Deming’s feeling that change must occur slowly, a little at a time to properly observe the results and take appropriate action (Plan - Do - Check - Act). To Juran there are two kinds of quality: “fitness for use” and “conformance to specifications.” Juran might have possibly considered safety in terms of “safe design of equipment and compliance with safety rules.”
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